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Table 2

Input values for the infiltration methods

MethodParametersUnitOsloTrondheimSandnes
Green-Ampt Saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat mm/h 104.64* 31.88* 14.05* 
Suction heada ψs mm/h 51.68 76.31 99.84 
Initial deficit, wetb θ – 0.080 0.040 0.036 
Initial deficit, dryb   0.260 0.258 0.220 
Horton Minimum infiltration rate fmin mm/h 104.64* 31.88* 14.05* 
Maximum infiltration rate, wetc fmax mm/h 130.99 35.90 15.82 
Maximum infiltration rate, dryc   190.02 57.75 25.00 
Decay coefficientd Kd h−1 4.0 4.0 4.0 
Holtan Minimum infiltration rate fmin mm/h 104.64* 31.88* 14.05* 
Maximum infiltration ratee fmax mm/h 209.28 63.76 28.10 
Wilting pointf WP – 0.050 0.050 0.050 
Field capacity FC – 0.115g 0.117g 0.117h 
Porosity ϕ – 0.340* 0.340* 0.302i 
Initial soil moisture, wet θi – 0.260* 0.300* 0.266j 
Initial soil moisture, dry   0.081 0.082 0.082 
MethodParametersUnitOsloTrondheimSandnes
Green-Ampt Saturated hydraulic conductivity Ksat mm/h 104.64* 31.88* 14.05* 
Suction heada ψs mm/h 51.68 76.31 99.84 
Initial deficit, wetb θ – 0.080 0.040 0.036 
Initial deficit, dryb   0.260 0.258 0.220 
Horton Minimum infiltration rate fmin mm/h 104.64* 31.88* 14.05* 
Maximum infiltration rate, wetc fmax mm/h 130.99 35.90 15.82 
Maximum infiltration rate, dryc   190.02 57.75 25.00 
Decay coefficientd Kd h−1 4.0 4.0 4.0 
Holtan Minimum infiltration rate fmin mm/h 104.64* 31.88* 14.05* 
Maximum infiltration ratee fmax mm/h 209.28 63.76 28.10 
Wilting pointf WP – 0.050 0.050 0.050 
Field capacity FC – 0.115g 0.117g 0.117h 
Porosity ϕ – 0.340* 0.340* 0.302i 
Initial soil moisture, wet θi – 0.260* 0.300* 0.266j 
Initial soil moisture, dry   0.081 0.082 0.082 

*See Table 1.

aBased on the relationship between Ksat and ψs described in the SWMM technical manual (Rossman & Huber 2016).

bThe difference between porosity and initial soil moisture content.

cAdjusted values to account for initial soil water content. It is set to the infiltration rate, when the initial soil moisture percentage of porosity is taken away from the infiltrated water above fmin within 2 h, based on Equation (1).

dFrom recommendation by SWMM technical manual (Rossman & Huber 2016).

eMaximum infiltration rate is assumed to be double the minimum infiltration rate, where the values are within the measured values for compacted sandy soils by Pitt et al. (1999).

fBased on values from Wang et al. (2017).

gCalculated based on measured values and method described by Becker (2016).

hAssumed the same as for Trondheim.

iKhan et al. (2012) showed that the porosity of sandy soils can be significantly reduced due to compaction. A 31% reduction to the recommended typical porosity for sandy sand from Rossman & Huber (2016) was used.

jInitial soil moisture percentage of porosity is assumed the same as in Trondheim, due to the high amount of rainy days in both locations (NCCS 2018).

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