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Table 1

Flow resistance equation proposed by various investigators

InvestigatorRelation/EquationDescription
Scheuerlein (1968)  (10)  For block ramp of type A with interlocked block,η < 1 = air content parameter, Φ = DN1/2 = packing factor, D = equivalent block diameter, K = D/3 = mean roughness height, applicable for bed slope 10% < S< 67% 
Rice et al. (1988)  (11)  It is applicable for block ramps of type A with dumped blocks. Valid for bed slope 2.8% < S< 33% and median rock diameter 52≤ D50 ≤278 (mm) 
Ferro (1999)  (12)  bo = −1.5 for Г > 50%, bo = −(0.2590 − 0.1189α − 0.01711α2 + 0.00117α3) for Г >50% and α for various e = D50/d50 from Figure 2  
Aberle & Smart (2003)  (13)  Derived with experimental data with d90 = 64 mm and d10 = 32 mm randomly placed at S = 8% to 10% 
Oertel & Schlenkhoff (2012a, 2012b)  (14)  Derived for crossbar block ramps with boulder height of crossbars as DB. It is valid for relative submergences 1.5 < h/DB < 4 and for tested ramp slopes 2% < S < 10% 
InvestigatorRelation/EquationDescription
Scheuerlein (1968)  (10)  For block ramp of type A with interlocked block,η < 1 = air content parameter, Φ = DN1/2 = packing factor, D = equivalent block diameter, K = D/3 = mean roughness height, applicable for bed slope 10% < S< 67% 
Rice et al. (1988)  (11)  It is applicable for block ramps of type A with dumped blocks. Valid for bed slope 2.8% < S< 33% and median rock diameter 52≤ D50 ≤278 (mm) 
Ferro (1999)  (12)  bo = −1.5 for Г > 50%, bo = −(0.2590 − 0.1189α − 0.01711α2 + 0.00117α3) for Г >50% and α for various e = D50/d50 from Figure 2  
Aberle & Smart (2003)  (13)  Derived with experimental data with d90 = 64 mm and d10 = 32 mm randomly placed at S = 8% to 10% 
Oertel & Schlenkhoff (2012a, 2012b)  (14)  Derived for crossbar block ramps with boulder height of crossbars as DB. It is valid for relative submergences 1.5 < h/DB < 4 and for tested ramp slopes 2% < S < 10% 
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