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Table 7

A brief summary of the experimental setup and range of parameters used by various investigators

AuthorType of block rampFlume dimension(m) Length Width DepthSlope(s)Block dia (mm)Base material d50(mm)Fσ,CuQ (m3/s)
Pagliara & Chiavaccini (2006a)  Interlocked blocks(Type A) 3.5
6.0
25 
0.25
0.35
0.8 
0.3
0.5
0.9 
1 V:4H-1 V-12H
1 V: 8H 
……. 1.0
2.0
10.0
20.0
88.0 
1.4–4.3 1.2–1.5
(Cu
0.001–0.025for Flume 1,2
0.006–0.1 for flume 3 
Pagliara & Chiavaccini (2006b)  Reinforced block ramp 3.5
6.0 
0.25, 0.35 0.3
0.5 
0.08–0.33 29, 38, 42 2, 3.5, 12.3, 16.5, 21.7 0.95–3.9 … …… 
Pagliara et al. (2008)  Submerged block ramp 3.5 0.25 0.3 1 V:4H-
1 V: 8H 
…….. 1.0
2.0
10.0
20.0 
…. 1.1–1.3
(Cu
0.002–0.008 
Ahmad et al. (2009)  Block ramp with staggered boulder 4.12 0.3 ….. 1 V-4H 55, 65, 100 20 …. …. 0.077–0.0297 
Oertel & Schlenkhoff (2012a, 2012b)  Cross bar block ramp 0.8 ….. 1 V:30H 60 …. …. 0.001–0.05 
Tamagni et al. (2014b)  Unstructured block ramp 0.4 0.7 0.04 65 4.3 …. 3.2 (σ0.07 
Weitbrecht et al. (2017)  Unstructured block ramp 13.5 0.6 0.6 0.05 43, 57, 65 1.5 (FM)
3.1(UM-FM)
4.3 (CM)
8.5(UM-CM) 
…. 1.1–3.3
(σ
0.00018–0.084 
Romeji et al. (2020)  Uniform and non uniform staggered boulder 4.0 0.3 0.45 1 V:5H
1 V:7H
1 V:9H 
42–100 16–25 …. … 0.0073–0.0387 
AuthorType of block rampFlume dimension(m) Length Width DepthSlope(s)Block dia (mm)Base material d50(mm)Fσ,CuQ (m3/s)
Pagliara & Chiavaccini (2006a)  Interlocked blocks(Type A) 3.5
6.0
25 
0.25
0.35
0.8 
0.3
0.5
0.9 
1 V:4H-1 V-12H
1 V: 8H 
……. 1.0
2.0
10.0
20.0
88.0 
1.4–4.3 1.2–1.5
(Cu
0.001–0.025for Flume 1,2
0.006–0.1 for flume 3 
Pagliara & Chiavaccini (2006b)  Reinforced block ramp 3.5
6.0 
0.25, 0.35 0.3
0.5 
0.08–0.33 29, 38, 42 2, 3.5, 12.3, 16.5, 21.7 0.95–3.9 … …… 
Pagliara et al. (2008)  Submerged block ramp 3.5 0.25 0.3 1 V:4H-
1 V: 8H 
…….. 1.0
2.0
10.0
20.0 
…. 1.1–1.3
(Cu
0.002–0.008 
Ahmad et al. (2009)  Block ramp with staggered boulder 4.12 0.3 ….. 1 V-4H 55, 65, 100 20 …. …. 0.077–0.0297 
Oertel & Schlenkhoff (2012a, 2012b)  Cross bar block ramp 0.8 ….. 1 V:30H 60 …. …. 0.001–0.05 
Tamagni et al. (2014b)  Unstructured block ramp 0.4 0.7 0.04 65 4.3 …. 3.2 (σ0.07 
Weitbrecht et al. (2017)  Unstructured block ramp 13.5 0.6 0.6 0.05 43, 57, 65 1.5 (FM)
3.1(UM-FM)
4.3 (CM)
8.5(UM-CM) 
…. 1.1–3.3
(σ
0.00018–0.084 
Romeji et al. (2020)  Uniform and non uniform staggered boulder 4.0 0.3 0.45 1 V:5H
1 V:7H
1 V:9H 
42–100 16–25 …. … 0.0073–0.0387 
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