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Table 1

Analyzed loss control practices

Practices of water loss control
Pressure Management P1. Use of pressure gauges and monitoring network pressures. 
P2. Telecontrol center to monitor pressures in the network. 
P3. Using pressure reducing valves. 
P4. Reduction of water pressure at night. 
P5. Average network pressure according to NBR 12218/1994 (100 kPa (10 mH2O) dynamic pressure and 500 kPa (50 mH2O) static pressure). 
P6. Automated tanks. 
Infrastructural management P7. Replacement of old building extensions. 
P8. Macro measurement. 
P9. Geo-referenced register of pipelines. 
P10. Annual network maintenance plan (Cleaning/Rehabilitation). 
P11. Quality control of materials and equipment used in network maintenance. 
P12. Establishment of standard operational procedures. 
P13. Periodical calibration of network equipment (gauges, valves). 
P14. Training for the maintenance and operation team (Certification). 
Pipe corrosion control P15. Internal pipe coating. 
P16. External pipe coating. 
P17. Prioritizing the use of non-metallic piping. 
Leak control P18. Use of ground listening devices to detect non-visible leaks. 
P19. Defining the best frequency for finding leaks. 
P20. Full-time team to repair the leaks. 
P21. Use of computer/mathematical simulation models for leakage detection. 
P22. Use of zero consumption method to detect non-visible leaks. 
P23. Use of the minimum overnight consumption method to detect non-visible leaks. 
P24. Organizing the system in measurement zones (sectorization, MCD). 
P25. Exclusive team for ‘leak hunting’. 
P26. Watertightness test using hydrometers. 
P27. Communication channel for the user to alert about leaks in the streets (visible). 
Measurement error control P28. Corrective exchange of hydrometers. 
P29. Optimized preventive exchange of hydrometers. 
P30. Supervision of hydrometers to verify measurement errors. 
P31. Use of more accurate hydrometers. 
P32. Use of hydrometers with radio frequency telemetry. 
P33. Proper training of hydrometers reading team. 
Control of fraud and clandestine connections P34. Public awareness of the problem concerning fraud and clandestine connections. 
P35. Regular inspection of suspicious and inactive connections. 
P36. Repair of sloping hydrometers. 
P37. Use of technology to detect clandestine connections. 
P38. Monitoring users' monthly consumption to detect fraud. 
P39. Acting in areas of poverty to control fraud. 
P40. Reports of fraud by the community. 
P41. Annual update of user registration. 
Strategic Planning P42. Establishing a plan/program to fight water losses. 
P43. Definition of a loss reduction target. 
P44. Specific department/section of the organization focused on loss control. 
P45. Diagnosis of the loss situation in the city. 
P46. Use of indicators to evaluate loss control performance. 
P47. Development of studies to prioritize the most critical areas for loss control. 
P48. Cost benefit analysis for loss control actions. 
P49. Periodic meeting to analyze the results of the control actions and to plan the consecutive ones. 
Investment and Innovation P50. Investing in loss control technologies. 
P51. Implementation of continuous improvement methodologies. 
P52. Investing in training courses for staff aimed at loss control. 
P53. Use of GIS in loss control assistance. 
P54. Investing in the development of loss management manuals. 
Practices of water loss control
Pressure Management P1. Use of pressure gauges and monitoring network pressures. 
P2. Telecontrol center to monitor pressures in the network. 
P3. Using pressure reducing valves. 
P4. Reduction of water pressure at night. 
P5. Average network pressure according to NBR 12218/1994 (100 kPa (10 mH2O) dynamic pressure and 500 kPa (50 mH2O) static pressure). 
P6. Automated tanks. 
Infrastructural management P7. Replacement of old building extensions. 
P8. Macro measurement. 
P9. Geo-referenced register of pipelines. 
P10. Annual network maintenance plan (Cleaning/Rehabilitation). 
P11. Quality control of materials and equipment used in network maintenance. 
P12. Establishment of standard operational procedures. 
P13. Periodical calibration of network equipment (gauges, valves). 
P14. Training for the maintenance and operation team (Certification). 
Pipe corrosion control P15. Internal pipe coating. 
P16. External pipe coating. 
P17. Prioritizing the use of non-metallic piping. 
Leak control P18. Use of ground listening devices to detect non-visible leaks. 
P19. Defining the best frequency for finding leaks. 
P20. Full-time team to repair the leaks. 
P21. Use of computer/mathematical simulation models for leakage detection. 
P22. Use of zero consumption method to detect non-visible leaks. 
P23. Use of the minimum overnight consumption method to detect non-visible leaks. 
P24. Organizing the system in measurement zones (sectorization, MCD). 
P25. Exclusive team for ‘leak hunting’. 
P26. Watertightness test using hydrometers. 
P27. Communication channel for the user to alert about leaks in the streets (visible). 
Measurement error control P28. Corrective exchange of hydrometers. 
P29. Optimized preventive exchange of hydrometers. 
P30. Supervision of hydrometers to verify measurement errors. 
P31. Use of more accurate hydrometers. 
P32. Use of hydrometers with radio frequency telemetry. 
P33. Proper training of hydrometers reading team. 
Control of fraud and clandestine connections P34. Public awareness of the problem concerning fraud and clandestine connections. 
P35. Regular inspection of suspicious and inactive connections. 
P36. Repair of sloping hydrometers. 
P37. Use of technology to detect clandestine connections. 
P38. Monitoring users' monthly consumption to detect fraud. 
P39. Acting in areas of poverty to control fraud. 
P40. Reports of fraud by the community. 
P41. Annual update of user registration. 
Strategic Planning P42. Establishing a plan/program to fight water losses. 
P43. Definition of a loss reduction target. 
P44. Specific department/section of the organization focused on loss control. 
P45. Diagnosis of the loss situation in the city. 
P46. Use of indicators to evaluate loss control performance. 
P47. Development of studies to prioritize the most critical areas for loss control. 
P48. Cost benefit analysis for loss control actions. 
P49. Periodic meeting to analyze the results of the control actions and to plan the consecutive ones. 
Investment and Innovation P50. Investing in loss control technologies. 
P51. Implementation of continuous improvement methodologies. 
P52. Investing in training courses for staff aimed at loss control. 
P53. Use of GIS in loss control assistance. 
P54. Investing in the development of loss management manuals. 
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