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Table 4

Reference dose (RfD), risk quotient (HQ), and risk index (HI) values of individual elements in the Xiangtan manganese mining area

ElementRfDingestion (μg/kg/day)RfDdermal (μg/kg/day)HQingestion
HQdermal
HI = ∑HQs
AdultChildAdultChildAdultChild
Mn 24 0.96 2.48 × 10−2 2.58 × 10−2 5.39 × 10−2 1.11 × 10−1 7.87 × 10−2 1.36 × 10−1 
Ni 20 0.8 2.65 × 10−3 2.76 × 10−3 3.46 × 10−2 7.11 × 10−2 3.73 × 10−2 7.39 × 10−2 
Cu 40 12 4.42 × 10−3 4.59 × 10−3 1.35 × 10−4 2.77 × 10−4 4.55 × 10−3 4.87 × 10−3 
Zn 300 60 2.92 × 10−4 3.04 × 10−4 2.29 × 10−5 4.70 × 10−5 3.15 × 10−4 3.51 × 10−4 
Cd 0.5 0.025 1.98 × 10−2 2.06 × 10−2 4.13 × 10−2 8.48 × 10−2 6.10 × 10−2 1.05 × 10−1 
Pb 1.4 0.42 9.60 × 10−2 9.98 × 10−2 1.43 × 10−2 2.93 × 10−2 1.10 × 10−1 1.29 × 10−1 
Total   1.48 × 10−1 1.54 × 10−1 1.44 × 10−1 2.96 × 10−1 2.92 × 10−1 4.50 × 10−1 
ElementRfDingestion (μg/kg/day)RfDdermal (μg/kg/day)HQingestion
HQdermal
HI = ∑HQs
AdultChildAdultChildAdultChild
Mn 24 0.96 2.48 × 10−2 2.58 × 10−2 5.39 × 10−2 1.11 × 10−1 7.87 × 10−2 1.36 × 10−1 
Ni 20 0.8 2.65 × 10−3 2.76 × 10−3 3.46 × 10−2 7.11 × 10−2 3.73 × 10−2 7.39 × 10−2 
Cu 40 12 4.42 × 10−3 4.59 × 10−3 1.35 × 10−4 2.77 × 10−4 4.55 × 10−3 4.87 × 10−3 
Zn 300 60 2.92 × 10−4 3.04 × 10−4 2.29 × 10−5 4.70 × 10−5 3.15 × 10−4 3.51 × 10−4 
Cd 0.5 0.025 1.98 × 10−2 2.06 × 10−2 4.13 × 10−2 8.48 × 10−2 6.10 × 10−2 1.05 × 10−1 
Pb 1.4 0.42 9.60 × 10−2 9.98 × 10−2 1.43 × 10−2 2.93 × 10−2 1.10 × 10−1 1.29 × 10−1 
Total   1.48 × 10−1 1.54 × 10−1 1.44 × 10−1 2.96 × 10−1 2.92 × 10−1 4.50 × 10−1 
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