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Table 2

Main advantages and limitations of the MSA, ICA and HS

AlgorithmAdvantagesLimitations
MSA 
  • Ease of implementation and execution

  • Fast convergence rate

  • Low computational overheads (Zhou et al. 2018)

  • Ability to avoid local optima and premature convergence

  • Capability of a large number of simulations to arrive at the optimum

  • Lack of restriction by the number of dimensions

  • High exploitation and exploration capabilities

  • Ability to solve large-scale and complex problems

  • Easily handling of nonlinearity and non-convexity of problem domain

  • Low number of parameter tuning

 
  • Reduction of population diversity over time

 
ICA 
  • Ease of implementation and execution

  • Lack of restriction by the number of dimensions

  • Less dependency on initial solutions

 
  • Possibility of premature convergence

  • Possibility of trapping in local optima in high-dimensional problems

  • Failure to achieve the exact optimal point

 
HS 
  • Ease of implementation and run

  • Lack of restriction by the number of dimensions

  • Ability to tackle several complex problems

 
  • Possibility of premature convergence

  • Possibility of trapping in local optima in high-dimensional problems

  • Failure to achieve the exact optimal point

 
AlgorithmAdvantagesLimitations
MSA 
  • Ease of implementation and execution

  • Fast convergence rate

  • Low computational overheads (Zhou et al. 2018)

  • Ability to avoid local optima and premature convergence

  • Capability of a large number of simulations to arrive at the optimum

  • Lack of restriction by the number of dimensions

  • High exploitation and exploration capabilities

  • Ability to solve large-scale and complex problems

  • Easily handling of nonlinearity and non-convexity of problem domain

  • Low number of parameter tuning

 
  • Reduction of population diversity over time

 
ICA 
  • Ease of implementation and execution

  • Lack of restriction by the number of dimensions

  • Less dependency on initial solutions

 
  • Possibility of premature convergence

  • Possibility of trapping in local optima in high-dimensional problems

  • Failure to achieve the exact optimal point

 
HS 
  • Ease of implementation and run

  • Lack of restriction by the number of dimensions

  • Ability to tackle several complex problems

 
  • Possibility of premature convergence

  • Possibility of trapping in local optima in high-dimensional problems

  • Failure to achieve the exact optimal point

 
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