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Table 1

Summary of hierarchical multiple regression (fixed effects)

VariablesCoefficients (β)Standard errorp-value
Productive income −0.000061 0.000067 <0.001 
Cash contribution for system construction −0.1894 0.3160 0.5490 
Sense of ownership of water system (strongly agree)    
 Ownership (agree) 0.0514 0.3420 0.8800 
 Ownership (disagree) 0.7308 0.4633 0.1160 
 Ownership (strongly disagree) 1.9580 0.5810 <0.001 
 Involvement in decision making relating to project planning and implementation −1.4730 0.4271 <0.001 
 Non-educated persons in the household 0.0774 0.3893 0.8430 
 Reliability of water source 2.9420 2.3060 0.2470 
 System age −0.0849 0.0860 0.3350 
Water committee performance (very effective)    
 Water committee performance (effective) −1.0170 0.8076 0.2100 
 Water committee performance (less effective) 2.0630 0.9686 < 0.05 
Level of system operator activity (very active)    
 Level of system operator activity (active) 3.8960 0.6627 <0.01 
 Level of system operator activity (less active) 7.3550 1.5480 <0.001 
 Distance to water source from the community 0.0011 0.0003 <0.01 
Interaction effects output    
 Reliability of water source: System age −0.4739 1.7110 < 0.05 
 Reliability of water source: Level of system operator activity (active) 3.8960 0.9635 <0.01 
 Reliability of water source: Level of system operator activity (less active) 7.3550 1.5480 <0.01 
 Reliability of water source: Distance to water source from the community 0.00009 0.0005 0.8609 
 Reliability of water source: Water committee performance (effective) −1.228 1.3180 0.3552 
 Reliability of water source: Water committee performance (less effective) 1.1060 1.3820 0.4245 
 Non-educated persons in the household: Water committee performance (effective) −0.0467 0.4466 0.9202 
 Non-educated persons in the household: Water committee performance (less effective) 0.0552 0.4833 0.9090 
VariablesCoefficients (β)Standard errorp-value
Productive income −0.000061 0.000067 <0.001 
Cash contribution for system construction −0.1894 0.3160 0.5490 
Sense of ownership of water system (strongly agree)    
 Ownership (agree) 0.0514 0.3420 0.8800 
 Ownership (disagree) 0.7308 0.4633 0.1160 
 Ownership (strongly disagree) 1.9580 0.5810 <0.001 
 Involvement in decision making relating to project planning and implementation −1.4730 0.4271 <0.001 
 Non-educated persons in the household 0.0774 0.3893 0.8430 
 Reliability of water source 2.9420 2.3060 0.2470 
 System age −0.0849 0.0860 0.3350 
Water committee performance (very effective)    
 Water committee performance (effective) −1.0170 0.8076 0.2100 
 Water committee performance (less effective) 2.0630 0.9686 < 0.05 
Level of system operator activity (very active)    
 Level of system operator activity (active) 3.8960 0.6627 <0.01 
 Level of system operator activity (less active) 7.3550 1.5480 <0.001 
 Distance to water source from the community 0.0011 0.0003 <0.01 
Interaction effects output    
 Reliability of water source: System age −0.4739 1.7110 < 0.05 
 Reliability of water source: Level of system operator activity (active) 3.8960 0.9635 <0.01 
 Reliability of water source: Level of system operator activity (less active) 7.3550 1.5480 <0.01 
 Reliability of water source: Distance to water source from the community 0.00009 0.0005 0.8609 
 Reliability of water source: Water committee performance (effective) −1.228 1.3180 0.3552 
 Reliability of water source: Water committee performance (less effective) 1.1060 1.3820 0.4245 
 Non-educated persons in the household: Water committee performance (effective) −0.0467 0.4466 0.9202 
 Non-educated persons in the household: Water committee performance (less effective) 0.0552 0.4833 0.9090 

Note: β0 (intercept) = 1.061; REML criterion at convergence: 804; Variables have different scales.

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