Skip to Main Content
Table 1

Physicochemical characterization of urban wastewater in Africa

ParametersStatistical termspHEC (μS/cm)TSS (mg/L)COD (mg/L)BOD5 (mg/L)TKN (mg/L)TP (mg/L)References
Greywater Min – Max 6.75–8.71 173–2,130 50–410 66–559 35–205 3.60–51.33 1.22–21.23 This study 
Mean±SE 7.7 ± 0.35  633.2 ± 189.8 67.6 ± 57.1 60.2 ± 27.3   Nigeria (Nnaji et al. 2013) 
Min – Max 6.4–9.7 351–3,530 372–4,720 400–2,210 132.5–269 15.2 ± 4.5 10.8–23.2 Ghana (Dwumfour-Asare et al. 2017) 
Mean±SE 7.5 ± 0.2  212.0 ± 20.8 399 ± 108.4 198.3 ± 33.3  11.8 ± 4.0 Ghana (Awuah et al. 2014) 
Mean±SE 7.6 ± 0.4 645 ± 67  109 ± 33 59 ± 13  1.6 ± 0.5 Morocco (Merz et al. 2007) 
Blackwater Min – Max 7.08–8.24 165–3,680 375–5,400 460–5,490 290–3,480 9.55–142.88 2.36–40.33 This study 
Mean±SE 8 ± 0.0  1,151.67 ± 345 2,540 ± 640.9 1,006.7 ± 377.5  17.0 ± 9.9 Ghana (Awuah et al. 2014) 
Mean±SE 6.83 ± 0.41 660.5 ± 340.9 3,954 ± 500 5,729 ± 3,378 360 ± 27 512 ± 166 68.1 ± 66.3 Ghana (Kuwornu 2014) 
Mean 6.8  5,700 1,814 870   Ghana (Alemneh 2014) 
Min – Max 7.16 –8.1  212–486 835–1,680 420–1,420 117–178 17.9–35.4 Egypt (Abdel-Shafy et al. 2017) 
Commercial laundry wastewater Min – Max 7.67–9.10 320–1,680 40–340 31–884 9–270 5.60–68.64 32–135 This study 
Min – Max 7–10.2 360–2,200 18–107 88–648   0–45.8 South Africa (Natsurv 8 2017) 
Min – Max 9.1–10.2  200–400 664–716 134–276.7  0.9–10.15 Nigeria (Adesoye et al. 2014) 
Hospital wastewater Min – Max 6.50–8.75 250–1,688 30–1,140 151–810 60–690 3.75–54.88 1.12–17.50 This study 
Min – Max 6.65–7.86 3,980–4,550 29 223.01–691.2 100–150   Algeria (Messrouk et al. 2015) 
Min – Max 5.80–8.60 343–660 0.23–1.80 83–213 65–125   Ivory Cost (Sadia et al. 2016) 
Mean 8.28 230,000  1,593.6 131.28   Morocco (Elmountassir et al. 2019) 
Pharmaceutical wastewater Min – Max 5.62–8.79 356–1,275 370–2,370 1,080–9,504 180–1,700 3.05–20.32 0.77–8.75 This study 
Min – Max 4.7–7.2 199–413 30–70 80–110 20–60  0.08–0.16 Nigeria (James et al. 2014) 
Mean 6.46 784  525.51    Algeria (Kermet-said & Moulai-mostefa 2015) 
ParametersStatistical termspHEC (μS/cm)TSS (mg/L)COD (mg/L)BOD5 (mg/L)TKN (mg/L)TP (mg/L)References
Greywater Min – Max 6.75–8.71 173–2,130 50–410 66–559 35–205 3.60–51.33 1.22–21.23 This study 
Mean±SE 7.7 ± 0.35  633.2 ± 189.8 67.6 ± 57.1 60.2 ± 27.3   Nigeria (Nnaji et al. 2013) 
Min – Max 6.4–9.7 351–3,530 372–4,720 400–2,210 132.5–269 15.2 ± 4.5 10.8–23.2 Ghana (Dwumfour-Asare et al. 2017) 
Mean±SE 7.5 ± 0.2  212.0 ± 20.8 399 ± 108.4 198.3 ± 33.3  11.8 ± 4.0 Ghana (Awuah et al. 2014) 
Mean±SE 7.6 ± 0.4 645 ± 67  109 ± 33 59 ± 13  1.6 ± 0.5 Morocco (Merz et al. 2007) 
Blackwater Min – Max 7.08–8.24 165–3,680 375–5,400 460–5,490 290–3,480 9.55–142.88 2.36–40.33 This study 
Mean±SE 8 ± 0.0  1,151.67 ± 345 2,540 ± 640.9 1,006.7 ± 377.5  17.0 ± 9.9 Ghana (Awuah et al. 2014) 
Mean±SE 6.83 ± 0.41 660.5 ± 340.9 3,954 ± 500 5,729 ± 3,378 360 ± 27 512 ± 166 68.1 ± 66.3 Ghana (Kuwornu 2014) 
Mean 6.8  5,700 1,814 870   Ghana (Alemneh 2014) 
Min – Max 7.16 –8.1  212–486 835–1,680 420–1,420 117–178 17.9–35.4 Egypt (Abdel-Shafy et al. 2017) 
Commercial laundry wastewater Min – Max 7.67–9.10 320–1,680 40–340 31–884 9–270 5.60–68.64 32–135 This study 
Min – Max 7–10.2 360–2,200 18–107 88–648   0–45.8 South Africa (Natsurv 8 2017) 
Min – Max 9.1–10.2  200–400 664–716 134–276.7  0.9–10.15 Nigeria (Adesoye et al. 2014) 
Hospital wastewater Min – Max 6.50–8.75 250–1,688 30–1,140 151–810 60–690 3.75–54.88 1.12–17.50 This study 
Min – Max 6.65–7.86 3,980–4,550 29 223.01–691.2 100–150   Algeria (Messrouk et al. 2015) 
Min – Max 5.80–8.60 343–660 0.23–1.80 83–213 65–125   Ivory Cost (Sadia et al. 2016) 
Mean 8.28 230,000  1,593.6 131.28   Morocco (Elmountassir et al. 2019) 
Pharmaceutical wastewater Min – Max 5.62–8.79 356–1,275 370–2,370 1,080–9,504 180–1,700 3.05–20.32 0.77–8.75 This study 
Min – Max 4.7–7.2 199–413 30–70 80–110 20–60  0.08–0.16 Nigeria (James et al. 2014) 
Mean 6.46 784  525.51    Algeria (Kermet-said & Moulai-mostefa 2015) 

Min, Minimum; Max, Maximum; SD, Standard error.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal