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Table 1

Definition of relevant terms in the COST action circular city

TermDefinition
Nature-Based Solutions NBS are defined as concepts that bring nature into cities and those that are derived from nature. NBS address societal challenges and enable resource recovery, climate mitigation and adaptation challenges, human well-being, ecosystem restoration and/or improved biodiversity status, within the urban ecosystems. As such, within this definition we achieve resource recovery using organisms (e.g. microbes, algae, plants, insects, and worms) as the principal agents. However, physical and chemical processes can be included for recovery of resources (as discussed in WG3 Resource Recovery), as they may be needed for supporting and enhancing the performance of NBS. 
Ecosystem Services Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These ecosystem services have strong links to human well-being. 
Circular Economy CE is defined as an economic system that aims at minimising waste and making the most of resources. In a circular system resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimized by slowing, closing, and narrowing energy and material loops. This can be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling. 
Circular City A Circular City is where we apply the concepts of CE, i.e. we manage waste, commodities and energy in smarter and more efficient ways. A Circular City results in less pressure on our environment, new business models, innovative designs and new alliances and cooperation between different stakeholders. 
Micro/meso/macro-scale In the Action Circular City 
 
  • - Micro-scale relates to household level,

  • - Meso-scale relates to district level, and

  • - Macro-scale relates to city level or above.

 
 When referring to the Built Environment (WG1) 
 
  • - Micro-scale relates to green material,

  • - Meso-scale relates to green buildings, whereas

  • - Macro-scale relates to green sites, which are parts of the city or surrounding areas of buildings.

 
TermDefinition
Nature-Based Solutions NBS are defined as concepts that bring nature into cities and those that are derived from nature. NBS address societal challenges and enable resource recovery, climate mitigation and adaptation challenges, human well-being, ecosystem restoration and/or improved biodiversity status, within the urban ecosystems. As such, within this definition we achieve resource recovery using organisms (e.g. microbes, algae, plants, insects, and worms) as the principal agents. However, physical and chemical processes can be included for recovery of resources (as discussed in WG3 Resource Recovery), as they may be needed for supporting and enhancing the performance of NBS. 
Ecosystem Services Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These ecosystem services have strong links to human well-being. 
Circular Economy CE is defined as an economic system that aims at minimising waste and making the most of resources. In a circular system resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimized by slowing, closing, and narrowing energy and material loops. This can be achieved through long-lasting design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing, and recycling. 
Circular City A Circular City is where we apply the concepts of CE, i.e. we manage waste, commodities and energy in smarter and more efficient ways. A Circular City results in less pressure on our environment, new business models, innovative designs and new alliances and cooperation between different stakeholders. 
Micro/meso/macro-scale In the Action Circular City 
 
  • - Micro-scale relates to household level,

  • - Meso-scale relates to district level, and

  • - Macro-scale relates to city level or above.

 
 When referring to the Built Environment (WG1) 
 
  • - Micro-scale relates to green material,

  • - Meso-scale relates to green buildings, whereas

  • - Macro-scale relates to green sites, which are parts of the city or surrounding areas of buildings.

 
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