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Table 1

TSS, TN, TP removal performance of all biofilter designs over 33 weeks presented as mean value with one standard deviation in parentheses and compared to Australian stormwater harvesting guidelines

Biofilter designEffluent water quality
TSS
TN
TP
Concentration, mg/LRemoval (%)Concentration, mg/LRemoval (%)concentration, mg/LRemoval (%)
6.6 (4.1) 92 (4.0) 1.63 (0.35) 32.7 (9.50) 0.14 (0.026) 61.5 (6.59) 
SCu 8.2 (4.6) 90 (4.7) 1.16 (0.37) 50.6 (18.22) 0.05 (0.009) 86.8 (2.74) 
PB 8.8 (4.4) 89 (7.2) 0.68 (0.09) 71.5 (3.13) 0.11 (0.040) 70.9 (8.90) 
PBCu 9.8 (8.1) 89 (6.5) 1.19 (0.34) 49.8 (16.6) 0.13 (.0.042) 64.6 (11.61) 
LC 14.6 (4.7) 81 (9.3) 0.56 (0.16) 76.8 (6.5) 0.06 (0.020) 83.1 (4.28) 
LCCu 10.0 (6.7) 88 (5.0) 1.31 (0.89) 43.6 (41.7) 0.06 (0.015) 83.6 (3.88) 
LCCu-T 8.4 (5.9) 91 (4.3) 1.00 (0.31) 57.3 (15.8) 0.05 (0.014) 85.7 (3.98) 
Australian runoff quality (ARQ)a 17 80% 1.32 45% 0.20 45% 
Short-term irrigation trigger value (STV)b 50  25–125  0.8  
Long-term irrigation trigger value (LTV)b 30   0.05  
Recreational water usec NA  10 (nitrate-N)  NA  
Ecosystem protection – freshwaterd   0.35  0.01  
Biofilter designEffluent water quality
TSS
TN
TP
Concentration, mg/LRemoval (%)Concentration, mg/LRemoval (%)concentration, mg/LRemoval (%)
6.6 (4.1) 92 (4.0) 1.63 (0.35) 32.7 (9.50) 0.14 (0.026) 61.5 (6.59) 
SCu 8.2 (4.6) 90 (4.7) 1.16 (0.37) 50.6 (18.22) 0.05 (0.009) 86.8 (2.74) 
PB 8.8 (4.4) 89 (7.2) 0.68 (0.09) 71.5 (3.13) 0.11 (0.040) 70.9 (8.90) 
PBCu 9.8 (8.1) 89 (6.5) 1.19 (0.34) 49.8 (16.6) 0.13 (.0.042) 64.6 (11.61) 
LC 14.6 (4.7) 81 (9.3) 0.56 (0.16) 76.8 (6.5) 0.06 (0.020) 83.1 (4.28) 
LCCu 10.0 (6.7) 88 (5.0) 1.31 (0.89) 43.6 (41.7) 0.06 (0.015) 83.6 (3.88) 
LCCu-T 8.4 (5.9) 91 (4.3) 1.00 (0.31) 57.3 (15.8) 0.05 (0.014) 85.7 (3.98) 
Australian runoff quality (ARQ)a 17 80% 1.32 45% 0.20 45% 
Short-term irrigation trigger value (STV)b 50  25–125  0.8  
Long-term irrigation trigger value (LTV)b 30   0.05  
Recreational water usec NA  10 (nitrate-N)  NA  
Ecosystem protection – freshwaterd   0.35  0.01  

aAustralian runoff quality (ARQ) load reduction targets for TN, TP and TSS (45%, 45%, 80%) and equivalent effluent concentrations assuming: no inflow volume reduction, and mean inflow concentrations of 2.4 mg/L, 0.37 mg/L and 85 mg/L for TN, TP and TSS, respectively (ARQ 2006).

bTrigger value guidelines for agricultural irrigation water (NRMMC et al. 2009). LTV: long-term trigger value, up to 100 years, STV: short-term trigger value, up to 20 years.

cGuidelines for managing risks in recreational water (NHMRC 2008).

dTrigger values for chemical stressors for south-east Australia freshwater lakes and reservoirs (ANZECC/ARMCANZ 2000).

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