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Table 2

Information for three scenarios

ScenariosDescription
① The calibration and validation of the SWAT and VIC models use the runoff observation data from 1960 to 1980 from the hydrologic station. ② The calibration and validation year for the InVEST model were 1975 and 1980, respectively (note: the InVEST model was calibrated by Equation (9) in the Supplementary information to transform water yield to runoff by using the runoff coefficient). ③ Then the HESs for both SWAT and InVEST models were simulated for the period 1975–1980 
① The calibration and validation of the SWAT model use the runoff observation data from 1960 to 1974 from the hydrologic station. ② The HESs between 1975 and1980 have been simulated by the calibrated SWAT model in step ①. 2460. ③ The InVEST model is calibrated by the HESs of the SWAT model in 1975 and 1980 (note: the InVEST model was calibrated by the simulated HESs of the SWAT model). ④ We use the calibrated InVEST model to calculate HESs from 1975 to 1980 
① We use the hydrologic station runoff data from 1960 to 1974 to calibrate the VIC model, and reproduce the runoff data from 1975 to 1980. ② The SWAT model is calibrated by the runoff data from 1960 to 1980 (observation data from 1960 to 1974; reproduced data by VIC from 1975 to 1980). ③ The HESs between 1975 and 1980 were simulated by the calibrated SWAT model in step ②. 2461. ④ The InVEST model is calibrated by the HESs of the SWAT model in 1975 and 1980. ⑤ We use the calibrated InVEST model to calculate HESs from 1975 to 1980 
ScenariosDescription
① The calibration and validation of the SWAT and VIC models use the runoff observation data from 1960 to 1980 from the hydrologic station. ② The calibration and validation year for the InVEST model were 1975 and 1980, respectively (note: the InVEST model was calibrated by Equation (9) in the Supplementary information to transform water yield to runoff by using the runoff coefficient). ③ Then the HESs for both SWAT and InVEST models were simulated for the period 1975–1980 
① The calibration and validation of the SWAT model use the runoff observation data from 1960 to 1974 from the hydrologic station. ② The HESs between 1975 and1980 have been simulated by the calibrated SWAT model in step ①. 2460. ③ The InVEST model is calibrated by the HESs of the SWAT model in 1975 and 1980 (note: the InVEST model was calibrated by the simulated HESs of the SWAT model). ④ We use the calibrated InVEST model to calculate HESs from 1975 to 1980 
① We use the hydrologic station runoff data from 1960 to 1974 to calibrate the VIC model, and reproduce the runoff data from 1975 to 1980. ② The SWAT model is calibrated by the runoff data from 1960 to 1980 (observation data from 1960 to 1974; reproduced data by VIC from 1975 to 1980). ③ The HESs between 1975 and 1980 were simulated by the calibrated SWAT model in step ②. 2461. ④ The InVEST model is calibrated by the HESs of the SWAT model in 1975 and 1980. ⑤ We use the calibrated InVEST model to calculate HESs from 1975 to 1980 
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