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Table 1

Analysis parameters in the pilot region

ComponentsSymbolValueUnit
Main length LM 32.23 km 
Number of service connections Nc 931 No. 
Total length of the private service connections Lp 9.53 km 
Number of the Customers  2,500 No. 
Number of non-residential customers  2,200 No. 
Number of residential customers  300 No. 
Number of isolation valves  No. 
Ground level difference in the region  15 
Network condition Moderate   
Data transfer SCADA   
System pressure before pressure management AZNP0 91 
System pressure after pressure management AZNP1 31 
Night–Day Factor (NDF) at before pressure management NDF0 22.5 Hours/day 
Night–Day Factor (NDF) at after pressure management NDF1 23.8 Hours/day 
Minimum night flow before pressure management MNF0 6.95 l/s 
Minimum night flow after pressure management MNF1 3.29 l/s 
Night customer consumption (BABE equation) Qcons. 0.28 l/s 
Background leaks (BABE equation) before pressure management Qleak-0 2.38 l/s 
Background leaks (BABE equation) after pressure management Qleak-1 0.56 l/s 
Change in pressure ΔP 60 
Change in minimum night flow ΔMNF 3.66 l/s 
Rate of change in pressure ΔP 65.9 
Rate of change in minimum night flow ΔMNF 52.7 
N1 power (for PE and PVC pipes) N1 1.50  
ComponentsSymbolValueUnit
Main length LM 32.23 km 
Number of service connections Nc 931 No. 
Total length of the private service connections Lp 9.53 km 
Number of the Customers  2,500 No. 
Number of non-residential customers  2,200 No. 
Number of residential customers  300 No. 
Number of isolation valves  No. 
Ground level difference in the region  15 
Network condition Moderate   
Data transfer SCADA   
System pressure before pressure management AZNP0 91 
System pressure after pressure management AZNP1 31 
Night–Day Factor (NDF) at before pressure management NDF0 22.5 Hours/day 
Night–Day Factor (NDF) at after pressure management NDF1 23.8 Hours/day 
Minimum night flow before pressure management MNF0 6.95 l/s 
Minimum night flow after pressure management MNF1 3.29 l/s 
Night customer consumption (BABE equation) Qcons. 0.28 l/s 
Background leaks (BABE equation) before pressure management Qleak-0 2.38 l/s 
Background leaks (BABE equation) after pressure management Qleak-1 0.56 l/s 
Change in pressure ΔP 60 
Change in minimum night flow ΔMNF 3.66 l/s 
Rate of change in pressure ΔP 65.9 
Rate of change in minimum night flow ΔMNF 52.7 
N1 power (for PE and PVC pipes) N1 1.50  
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