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Table 4

Advantages and disadvantages of the current technologies for arsenic removal

Arsenic removal technologyAdvantagesDisadvantagesArsenic rejectionReferences
Coagulation 
  • ✓ Wide range of pH

 
  • ✓ Pre-oxidation of arsenite required.

  • ✓ High arsenic-contaminated sludge production.

  • ✓ Expensive process.

  • Additional filtration is required.

 
>90% Choong et al. (2007); Mohan & Pittman (2007); Sahai et al. (2007); Malik et al. (2009); Hu et al. (2012); Asmel et al. (2017); Sun et al. (2018)  
Ion exchange 
  • ✓ pH-independent process

  • ✓ Only efficient for arsenite removal.

 
  • ✓ Only efficient for arsenite removal

  • ✓ Expensive process

  • ✓ Low capacity

  • ✓ Sludge disposal problem.

  • ✓ Resin needs to be replaced again and again

 
95 Mohan & Pittman (2007); Laatikainen et al. (2016); Sarkar & Paul (2016) 
Oxidation 
  • ✓ Low operation cost

  • ✓ Works on a large pH range

 
  • ✓ Very slow process

  • ✓ Drinking water has a bad smell and color in addition to chlorine, permanganate …

  • ✓ Sludge formation.

 
>95% Lee et al. (2003); Ghurye & Clifford (2004); Leupin & Hug (2005); Dodd et al. (2006); Nriagu et al. (2007); Sahai et al. (2007); Li et al. (2010); Neppolian et al. (2010)  
Adsorption 
  • ✓ Low cost

  • ✓ Ease of operation

 
  • ✓ pH, effective surface area, and the nature of the adsorbent need to be maintained

  • ✓ Arsenite cannot be removed very well

  • ✓ Post-filtration required

  • ✓ Organic matter, other salts in water decrease the efficiency of the process

  • ✓ Removal of the generated heavy flocs are difficult

 
>100 (Singh & Pant (2004); Mohan & Pittman (2007); Banerjee et al. (2008); Martinson & Reddy (2009); Khosa et al. (2013); Vadahanambi et al. (2013); Sarkar & Paul (2016); Chowdhury (2017); Hao et al. (2018); Siddique et al. (2020)  
Membrane techniques 
  • ✓ Easy operational

  • ✓ Technique

  • ✓ High arsenate removal efficiency

  • ✓ No sludge production

 
  • ✓ Membrane fouling

  • ✓ A little expensive

 
>99 Johnston et al. (2001); Chwirka et al. (2004); Ghurye et al. (2004); Shih (2005); Choong et al. (2007); Sarkar & Paul (2016)  
Arsenic removal technologyAdvantagesDisadvantagesArsenic rejectionReferences
Coagulation 
  • ✓ Wide range of pH

 
  • ✓ Pre-oxidation of arsenite required.

  • ✓ High arsenic-contaminated sludge production.

  • ✓ Expensive process.

  • Additional filtration is required.

 
>90% Choong et al. (2007); Mohan & Pittman (2007); Sahai et al. (2007); Malik et al. (2009); Hu et al. (2012); Asmel et al. (2017); Sun et al. (2018)  
Ion exchange 
  • ✓ pH-independent process

  • ✓ Only efficient for arsenite removal.

 
  • ✓ Only efficient for arsenite removal

  • ✓ Expensive process

  • ✓ Low capacity

  • ✓ Sludge disposal problem.

  • ✓ Resin needs to be replaced again and again

 
95 Mohan & Pittman (2007); Laatikainen et al. (2016); Sarkar & Paul (2016) 
Oxidation 
  • ✓ Low operation cost

  • ✓ Works on a large pH range

 
  • ✓ Very slow process

  • ✓ Drinking water has a bad smell and color in addition to chlorine, permanganate …

  • ✓ Sludge formation.

 
>95% Lee et al. (2003); Ghurye & Clifford (2004); Leupin & Hug (2005); Dodd et al. (2006); Nriagu et al. (2007); Sahai et al. (2007); Li et al. (2010); Neppolian et al. (2010)  
Adsorption 
  • ✓ Low cost

  • ✓ Ease of operation

 
  • ✓ pH, effective surface area, and the nature of the adsorbent need to be maintained

  • ✓ Arsenite cannot be removed very well

  • ✓ Post-filtration required

  • ✓ Organic matter, other salts in water decrease the efficiency of the process

  • ✓ Removal of the generated heavy flocs are difficult

 
>100 (Singh & Pant (2004); Mohan & Pittman (2007); Banerjee et al. (2008); Martinson & Reddy (2009); Khosa et al. (2013); Vadahanambi et al. (2013); Sarkar & Paul (2016); Chowdhury (2017); Hao et al. (2018); Siddique et al. (2020)  
Membrane techniques 
  • ✓ Easy operational

  • ✓ Technique

  • ✓ High arsenate removal efficiency

  • ✓ No sludge production

 
  • ✓ Membrane fouling

  • ✓ A little expensive

 
>99 Johnston et al. (2001); Chwirka et al. (2004); Ghurye et al. (2004); Shih (2005); Choong et al. (2007); Sarkar & Paul (2016)  
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