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Table 6

Novel nanofiltration membranes synthesized or modified for arsenic rejection

MembraneBackgroundArsenic Removal/RemarksYearReferences
Fabrication of thin-film nanocomposite nanofiltration membranes incorporated with aromatic amine-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Rejection performance of inorganic pollutants from groundwater with improved acid and chlorine resistance. Arsenate removal > 98% 2020 Gholami et al. (2020)  
Polyamide intercalated nanofiltration membrane modified with biofunctionalized core-shell composite for efficient removal of arsenic and selenium from wastewater Arsenate removal > 98.2% 2020 Zeeshan et al. (2020)  
Integration of two-stage nanofiltration with arsenic intermediate chemical precipitation Efficient removal of arsenate As (V) 2019 Andrade et al. (2019)  
Removal of Arsenic (III) from water using magnetite precipitated onto Douglas fir biochar Efficient removal of Arsenite As (III) 2019 Navarathna et al. (2019)  
The P[MPC-co-AEMA] co-polymer was incorporated into the polyamide selective layer of thin-film composite (TFC) membranes Pioneering work that may deliver valuable insights to design next-generation NF membranes for heavy metal removal in water treatment. The novel copolymer modified TFC membranes show improved pure water permeability (PWP) and rejections for both pollutants due to their reduced pore sizes, higher hydrophilicity. It exhibits the highest PWP of 8.5 LMH/bar and impressive rejections of 99.8% toward HAsO42−. It finally proves robust durability under 180-h testing. 2018 He et al. (2018a)  
Sodium-ion modified carbon quantum dot (Na-CQD) incorporated thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes This work may provide useful insights into the preparation of nanoparticle modified polymeric membranes for water purification. The novel TFN membrane containing 0.05 wt% of Na-CQDs exhibits enhanced pure water permeability (PWP). The new Na-CQD modified Thin Film Nanofiltration membranes display the highest PWP of 10.4 LMH/bar and impressive rejections of 99.5% toward HAsO42−2018 He et al. (2018b)  
Hydrophobic kaolin hollow fiber membranes (h-KHFM via grafting with fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) molecules) Low-cost kaolin was utilized in the fabrication of the ceramic hollow fiber membrane. A high permeate flux of 28 kg/m2 h for As(III) and 25 kg/m2 h for As(V) with 100% As removal was reached under feed temperature of 60 °C and it has met the standards-setting the maximum limit of the contaminant at 10 ppb. 2018 He et al. (2018b), Hubadillah et al. (2018)  
UiO-66 incorporated thin film (TF) nanocomposite membranes The effect of particle loading was also studied for the 30 nm UiO-66 TFN membranes. (The best performance) The TFN membrane containing 0.15 wt% UiO-66 has the highest PWP of 11.5 LMH/bar and remarkable rejections of 96.5%, 97.4% and 98.6% toward SeO32−, SeO42− and HAsO42−, respectively. Higher rejections are also achieved in the concurrent removal of Se and As. Also, the new membrane shows strong long-term stability. 2017 He et al. (2017)  
Performance of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for arsenic removal from drinking water Four types of thin-film polyamide nanofiltration (NF) (NF270, commercial; NFTG20, synthetized) and reverse osmosis (RO) (XLE, BW30) membranes were used in a flat-sheet module. It was found that the percentage of As (III) removal of RO membranes were in the range of 97–99% for all transmembrane pressure applied. In the range of operating conditions, As (III) and As (V) rejection were found almost equally good by RO membranes. 2016 Elcik et al. (2016)  
Novel nanofiltration membrane with ultrathin zirconia film as a selective layer Hydrolyzed poly-acrylonitrile (HPAN) ultrafiltration membrane is facilely co-deposited with polydopamine (PDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the PDA-PEI coating further induces the growth of zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles on the membrane surface. The formed zirconia selective layer is defect-free, uniform, and ultrathin (10–20 nm). The organic-inorganic TFC NFMs show high retention (>90%) for divalent cations with a salts-rejection sequence of MgCl2> CaCl2 > MgSO4> NaCl > Na2SO4 at pH 6.0 ascribed to the positively charged membrane surface. The water-flux reaches as high as 60 L/m2 h under 0.6 MPa due to the ultrathin and hydrophilic properties of the inorganic selective layer. 2016 Lv et al. (2016)  
MembraneBackgroundArsenic Removal/RemarksYearReferences
Fabrication of thin-film nanocomposite nanofiltration membranes incorporated with aromatic amine-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Rejection performance of inorganic pollutants from groundwater with improved acid and chlorine resistance. Arsenate removal > 98% 2020 Gholami et al. (2020)  
Polyamide intercalated nanofiltration membrane modified with biofunctionalized core-shell composite for efficient removal of arsenic and selenium from wastewater Arsenate removal > 98.2% 2020 Zeeshan et al. (2020)  
Integration of two-stage nanofiltration with arsenic intermediate chemical precipitation Efficient removal of arsenate As (V) 2019 Andrade et al. (2019)  
Removal of Arsenic (III) from water using magnetite precipitated onto Douglas fir biochar Efficient removal of Arsenite As (III) 2019 Navarathna et al. (2019)  
The P[MPC-co-AEMA] co-polymer was incorporated into the polyamide selective layer of thin-film composite (TFC) membranes Pioneering work that may deliver valuable insights to design next-generation NF membranes for heavy metal removal in water treatment. The novel copolymer modified TFC membranes show improved pure water permeability (PWP) and rejections for both pollutants due to their reduced pore sizes, higher hydrophilicity. It exhibits the highest PWP of 8.5 LMH/bar and impressive rejections of 99.8% toward HAsO42−. It finally proves robust durability under 180-h testing. 2018 He et al. (2018a)  
Sodium-ion modified carbon quantum dot (Na-CQD) incorporated thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes This work may provide useful insights into the preparation of nanoparticle modified polymeric membranes for water purification. The novel TFN membrane containing 0.05 wt% of Na-CQDs exhibits enhanced pure water permeability (PWP). The new Na-CQD modified Thin Film Nanofiltration membranes display the highest PWP of 10.4 LMH/bar and impressive rejections of 99.5% toward HAsO42−2018 He et al. (2018b)  
Hydrophobic kaolin hollow fiber membranes (h-KHFM via grafting with fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) molecules) Low-cost kaolin was utilized in the fabrication of the ceramic hollow fiber membrane. A high permeate flux of 28 kg/m2 h for As(III) and 25 kg/m2 h for As(V) with 100% As removal was reached under feed temperature of 60 °C and it has met the standards-setting the maximum limit of the contaminant at 10 ppb. 2018 He et al. (2018b), Hubadillah et al. (2018)  
UiO-66 incorporated thin film (TF) nanocomposite membranes The effect of particle loading was also studied for the 30 nm UiO-66 TFN membranes. (The best performance) The TFN membrane containing 0.15 wt% UiO-66 has the highest PWP of 11.5 LMH/bar and remarkable rejections of 96.5%, 97.4% and 98.6% toward SeO32−, SeO42− and HAsO42−, respectively. Higher rejections are also achieved in the concurrent removal of Se and As. Also, the new membrane shows strong long-term stability. 2017 He et al. (2017)  
Performance of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes for arsenic removal from drinking water Four types of thin-film polyamide nanofiltration (NF) (NF270, commercial; NFTG20, synthetized) and reverse osmosis (RO) (XLE, BW30) membranes were used in a flat-sheet module. It was found that the percentage of As (III) removal of RO membranes were in the range of 97–99% for all transmembrane pressure applied. In the range of operating conditions, As (III) and As (V) rejection were found almost equally good by RO membranes. 2016 Elcik et al. (2016)  
Novel nanofiltration membrane with ultrathin zirconia film as a selective layer Hydrolyzed poly-acrylonitrile (HPAN) ultrafiltration membrane is facilely co-deposited with polydopamine (PDA) and polyethyleneimine (PEI), and the PDA-PEI coating further induces the growth of zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles on the membrane surface. The formed zirconia selective layer is defect-free, uniform, and ultrathin (10–20 nm). The organic-inorganic TFC NFMs show high retention (>90%) for divalent cations with a salts-rejection sequence of MgCl2> CaCl2 > MgSO4> NaCl > Na2SO4 at pH 6.0 ascribed to the positively charged membrane surface. The water-flux reaches as high as 60 L/m2 h under 0.6 MPa due to the ultrathin and hydrophilic properties of the inorganic selective layer. 2016 Lv et al. (2016)  
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