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Table 1

Chemical contamination in Brazilian drinking water, from 2012 to 2019

ParameterClassNResult (μg/L)DL μg/LQL μg/LAnalytical MethodSourceCity – FUHBTa μg/LReference
Atrazine Pesticide 2/62 0.01–0.02 n.i. n.i. SPE + CG/MS Subterranean Lucas do Verde – MT Moreira et al. (2012)  
Deethylatrazine 1/62 0.02 No 
Chlorpyrifos 3/62 0.01–0.04 30 
Endosulfan alpha 13/62 0.01–0.82 20 
Endosulfan beta 12/62 0.02–0.26 
Flutriafol 12/62 0.03–0.34 60b 
Metolachlor 8/62 0.01–0.59 10 
Permethrin 1/62 0.19 20 
Atrazine 2/62 0.25–9.33 Subterranean Campo Verde – MT 
Endosulfan alpha 3/62 0.45–0.56 20 
Endosulfan beta 2/62 0.18–0.54 
Flutriafol 5/62 0.23–57.11 60b 
Metolachlor 3/62 0.26–1.48 10 
Bisphenol A Endocrine Disruptor 3/5 <1,200 400 1,200 LC-MS/MS Superficial Campinas, Atibaia e Baurueri – SP No Jardim et al. (2012))  
4-n-octylphenol 2/5 <100 40 100 Campinas – SP No 
4-n-nonylphenol 1/5 <100 40 100 Campinas e Atibaia – SP No 
Atenolol Drug n.i. <60 0.1 60 SPE + LC-MS/MS Superficial Capinas – SP No Maldaner & Jardim (2012)  
Paracetamol <40 0.067 40 No 
Ibuprofen <125 0.208 125 No 
Carbofuran Pesticide <10 0.028 10 
Diuron <15 0.043 15 90 
Atrazine Pesticide 0.0923 n.i. 0.004 SPE + LC-MS/MS Superficial Morro Redondo – RS Caldas et al. (2013)  
Carbofuran 0.0089 0.008 
Clomazone 0.04–0.124 0.04 No 
Diuron 0.0958 0.04 90 
Epoxiconazole 0.0456–0.083 0.04 18b 
Irgarol 0.0072 0.004 No 
Tebuconazole 0.053–0.0797 0.04 180 
Mebendazole Drug 0.0185 0.008 No 
Propylparaben PCP 0.1355 0.008 No 
Cadmium Metal 56 0.06–32.8 n.i. 0.05 ICP-MS Subterranean Conceição das Alagoas – MG Cardoso et al. (2014)  
Manganese 0.35–21.9 0.05 100 
Lead 0.42–7.7 0.05 10 
Nickel 1.19–221 0.1 70 
Tin <0.1–1.26 0.1 No 
Copper 1.18–70.4 0.2 2,000 
Mercury <0.2–3.38 0.2 
Chrome <0.5–7.34 0.5 50 
Zinc 10.5–556 0.5 5,000 
4-Tert-Octylphenol Endocrine Disruptor 1.53 0.14 0.62 SPE + GC-qMS Subterranean Novo Hamburgo – RS No Furtado & Mühlen (2015)  
4-nonylphenol 5.62 0.12 1.11 No 
Estrone 1.93–2.28 0.09 0.68 Superficial and Subterranean Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo – RS No 
17-alpha-ethinylestradiol 2.16–2.68 0.32 0.63 No 
Atrazine Pesticide 75 0.002–0.015 0.001 0.002 SPE + LC-MS/MS Superficial 16 capitals Machado et al. (2016)  
Caffeine – 93 0.005–2.769 0.0001 0.004 22 capitals No 
Triclosan PCP <0.009 0.003 0.009 Porto Alegre – RS No 
Phenolphithalein – <0.003 0.001 0.003 Palmas – TO No 
Cocaine Illicit drug 12 <6–22 LC-MS/MS Superficial Limeira, Campinas, Santa Bárbara do Oeste, Piracicaba and Espírito Santo do Pinhal – SP No Campestrini & Jardim (2017)  
Benzoylecgonine <5–652 No 
Acrolein Pesticide 36 <3.71–115 n.i. 3.71 HPLC-UV Rainwater São Domingos – BA No Moura et al. (2018)  
Formaldehyde Organic <7.65–40.8 7.65 No 
Acetaldehyde <8.7–100 8.7 No 
Propianaldehyde < 0.002–160 0.002 No 
Hexaldehyde n.i.–518 n.i. No 
Valeraldehyde n.i.–283 n.i. No 
Acetone n.i.-170 n.i. No 
Butyraldehyde <0.0003 0.0003 No 
Benzaldehyde <0.0005 0.0005 No 
Methylparaben PCP <0.08 0.024 0.08 LC-MS/MS Superficial Rio Grande – RS No Marta-Sanchez et al. (2018)  
Paracetamol Drug 0.016 0.003 0.01 SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS Superficial cities n.i. – RS No Oliveira et al. (2019)  
Atenolol Drug 0.026 0.003 0.01 Superficial No 
Carbamazepine Drug 0.013–0.027 0.003 0.01 Superficial and Subterranean No 
Androstano Endocrine Disruptor 10 0.018–0.027 n.i. 0.005 SPE-GC/MS Superficial and Subterranean Rosário do Catete – SE No Maynard et al. (2019)  
Bisphenol A 0.013–0.043 0.001 No 
Cholesterol 0.005–0.053 0.002 No 
Dibutyl phthalate 0.0020–0.034 0.002 No 
Diethyl phthalate 0.019 0.002 No 
Caffeine  0.14–0.19 0.003 No 
Aluminum Metal 23 141.4–788.8 2.9 9.9 ICP-OES Subterranean Itaporã and Caarapó – MS 200 Francisco et al. (2019)  
Cobalt 13.30–56.20 10 No 
Chrome 9.2–10.2 2.2 9.2 50 
Copper 6.1–28 0.36 1.2 2,000 
Iron 42.8–1,124 14 47 300 
Manganese 9.2–1,632 1.1 5.2 100 
Nickel 91.8 16.3 54.3 70 
Zinc 2–90.8 0.25 0.85 500 
Caffeine  0.0225–0.1 0.006 0.0198 LC-MS/MS No 
Imidacloprid Pesticide 0.023–0.188 0.0053 0.0174 300b 
Carbendazim 0.009 0.0027 0.0088 120 
2-Hydroxyatrazine 0.016–0.08 0.0027 0.009 No 
Hexazinone 0.018 0.0025 0.0081 No 
Clomazone <0.0048 0.0015 0.0048  
Tebuthiuron 0.021 0.003 0.0099 No 
Malathion 0.0115–0.013 0.0029 0.0095 No 
Aluminum Metal 10 3.9–176.8 n.i. ICP-MS Subterranean RIbeirão Preto – SP 200 Alves et al. (2019)  
Arsenic <0.2–0.38 0.2 10 
Chrome 0.73–3.36 0.5 50 
Lead 0.14–25.22 0.05 10 
Copper 0.54–1453.57 0.2 2000 
Manganese 1.03–48.09 0.05 100 
Nickel 0.2–6.21 0.2 70 
Zinc 4.98–1393.97 0.5 5000 
Cadmium <0.05–0.63 0.05 
Beryllium 0.12–0.28 0.1 No 
Tin 0.12–2.08 0.1 No 
Vanadium 1.3–2.53 No 
Betamethasone Drugs 72 <0.008–2.62 0.0024 0.008 LC-MS/MS Superficial cities n.i. – MG No Reis et al. (2019)  
Fluconazole <0.0087–0.75 0.0026 0.0087 No 
Loratadine <0.0136–0.055 0.0136 0.0136 No 
Prednisone <0.008–6.32 0.0024 0.008 No 
Atorvastatin <0.0128–0.657 0.0128 0.2553 No 
Danofloxacin <0.0009–0.042 0.0009 0.0171 No 
Enoxacin <0.401–0.219 0.01 0.4016 No 
Enrofloxacin <0.0005–0.219 0.0005 0.005 No 
Norfloxacin <0.0393–0.210 0.001 0.0393 No 
Ketoprofen <0.0065–0.561 0.0065 0.0646 No 
Gemfibrozil <0.0085–0.293 0.0085 0.085 No 
ParameterClassNResult (μg/L)DL μg/LQL μg/LAnalytical MethodSourceCity – FUHBTa μg/LReference
Atrazine Pesticide 2/62 0.01–0.02 n.i. n.i. SPE + CG/MS Subterranean Lucas do Verde – MT Moreira et al. (2012)  
Deethylatrazine 1/62 0.02 No 
Chlorpyrifos 3/62 0.01–0.04 30 
Endosulfan alpha 13/62 0.01–0.82 20 
Endosulfan beta 12/62 0.02–0.26 
Flutriafol 12/62 0.03–0.34 60b 
Metolachlor 8/62 0.01–0.59 10 
Permethrin 1/62 0.19 20 
Atrazine 2/62 0.25–9.33 Subterranean Campo Verde – MT 
Endosulfan alpha 3/62 0.45–0.56 20 
Endosulfan beta 2/62 0.18–0.54 
Flutriafol 5/62 0.23–57.11 60b 
Metolachlor 3/62 0.26–1.48 10 
Bisphenol A Endocrine Disruptor 3/5 <1,200 400 1,200 LC-MS/MS Superficial Campinas, Atibaia e Baurueri – SP No Jardim et al. (2012))  
4-n-octylphenol 2/5 <100 40 100 Campinas – SP No 
4-n-nonylphenol 1/5 <100 40 100 Campinas e Atibaia – SP No 
Atenolol Drug n.i. <60 0.1 60 SPE + LC-MS/MS Superficial Capinas – SP No Maldaner & Jardim (2012)  
Paracetamol <40 0.067 40 No 
Ibuprofen <125 0.208 125 No 
Carbofuran Pesticide <10 0.028 10 
Diuron <15 0.043 15 90 
Atrazine Pesticide 0.0923 n.i. 0.004 SPE + LC-MS/MS Superficial Morro Redondo – RS Caldas et al. (2013)  
Carbofuran 0.0089 0.008 
Clomazone 0.04–0.124 0.04 No 
Diuron 0.0958 0.04 90 
Epoxiconazole 0.0456–0.083 0.04 18b 
Irgarol 0.0072 0.004 No 
Tebuconazole 0.053–0.0797 0.04 180 
Mebendazole Drug 0.0185 0.008 No 
Propylparaben PCP 0.1355 0.008 No 
Cadmium Metal 56 0.06–32.8 n.i. 0.05 ICP-MS Subterranean Conceição das Alagoas – MG Cardoso et al. (2014)  
Manganese 0.35–21.9 0.05 100 
Lead 0.42–7.7 0.05 10 
Nickel 1.19–221 0.1 70 
Tin <0.1–1.26 0.1 No 
Copper 1.18–70.4 0.2 2,000 
Mercury <0.2–3.38 0.2 
Chrome <0.5–7.34 0.5 50 
Zinc 10.5–556 0.5 5,000 
4-Tert-Octylphenol Endocrine Disruptor 1.53 0.14 0.62 SPE + GC-qMS Subterranean Novo Hamburgo – RS No Furtado & Mühlen (2015)  
4-nonylphenol 5.62 0.12 1.11 No 
Estrone 1.93–2.28 0.09 0.68 Superficial and Subterranean Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo – RS No 
17-alpha-ethinylestradiol 2.16–2.68 0.32 0.63 No 
Atrazine Pesticide 75 0.002–0.015 0.001 0.002 SPE + LC-MS/MS Superficial 16 capitals Machado et al. (2016)  
Caffeine – 93 0.005–2.769 0.0001 0.004 22 capitals No 
Triclosan PCP <0.009 0.003 0.009 Porto Alegre – RS No 
Phenolphithalein – <0.003 0.001 0.003 Palmas – TO No 
Cocaine Illicit drug 12 <6–22 LC-MS/MS Superficial Limeira, Campinas, Santa Bárbara do Oeste, Piracicaba and Espírito Santo do Pinhal – SP No Campestrini & Jardim (2017)  
Benzoylecgonine <5–652 No 
Acrolein Pesticide 36 <3.71–115 n.i. 3.71 HPLC-UV Rainwater São Domingos – BA No Moura et al. (2018)  
Formaldehyde Organic <7.65–40.8 7.65 No 
Acetaldehyde <8.7–100 8.7 No 
Propianaldehyde < 0.002–160 0.002 No 
Hexaldehyde n.i.–518 n.i. No 
Valeraldehyde n.i.–283 n.i. No 
Acetone n.i.-170 n.i. No 
Butyraldehyde <0.0003 0.0003 No 
Benzaldehyde <0.0005 0.0005 No 
Methylparaben PCP <0.08 0.024 0.08 LC-MS/MS Superficial Rio Grande – RS No Marta-Sanchez et al. (2018)  
Paracetamol Drug 0.016 0.003 0.01 SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS Superficial cities n.i. – RS No Oliveira et al. (2019)  
Atenolol Drug 0.026 0.003 0.01 Superficial No 
Carbamazepine Drug 0.013–0.027 0.003 0.01 Superficial and Subterranean No 
Androstano Endocrine Disruptor 10 0.018–0.027 n.i. 0.005 SPE-GC/MS Superficial and Subterranean Rosário do Catete – SE No Maynard et al. (2019)  
Bisphenol A 0.013–0.043 0.001 No 
Cholesterol 0.005–0.053 0.002 No 
Dibutyl phthalate 0.0020–0.034 0.002 No 
Diethyl phthalate 0.019 0.002 No 
Caffeine  0.14–0.19 0.003 No 
Aluminum Metal 23 141.4–788.8 2.9 9.9 ICP-OES Subterranean Itaporã and Caarapó – MS 200 Francisco et al. (2019)  
Cobalt 13.30–56.20 10 No 
Chrome 9.2–10.2 2.2 9.2 50 
Copper 6.1–28 0.36 1.2 2,000 
Iron 42.8–1,124 14 47 300 
Manganese 9.2–1,632 1.1 5.2 100 
Nickel 91.8 16.3 54.3 70 
Zinc 2–90.8 0.25 0.85 500 
Caffeine  0.0225–0.1 0.006 0.0198 LC-MS/MS No 
Imidacloprid Pesticide 0.023–0.188 0.0053 0.0174 300b 
Carbendazim 0.009 0.0027 0.0088 120 
2-Hydroxyatrazine 0.016–0.08 0.0027 0.009 No 
Hexazinone 0.018 0.0025 0.0081 No 
Clomazone <0.0048 0.0015 0.0048  
Tebuthiuron 0.021 0.003 0.0099 No 
Malathion 0.0115–0.013 0.0029 0.0095 No 
Aluminum Metal 10 3.9–176.8 n.i. ICP-MS Subterranean RIbeirão Preto – SP 200 Alves et al. (2019)  
Arsenic <0.2–0.38 0.2 10 
Chrome 0.73–3.36 0.5 50 
Lead 0.14–25.22 0.05 10 
Copper 0.54–1453.57 0.2 2000 
Manganese 1.03–48.09 0.05 100 
Nickel 0.2–6.21 0.2 70 
Zinc 4.98–1393.97 0.5 5000 
Cadmium <0.05–0.63 0.05 
Beryllium 0.12–0.28 0.1 No 
Tin 0.12–2.08 0.1 No 
Vanadium 1.3–2.53 No 
Betamethasone Drugs 72 <0.008–2.62 0.0024 0.008 LC-MS/MS Superficial cities n.i. – MG No Reis et al. (2019)  
Fluconazole <0.0087–0.75 0.0026 0.0087 No 
Loratadine <0.0136–0.055 0.0136 0.0136 No 
Prednisone <0.008–6.32 0.0024 0.008 No 
Atorvastatin <0.0128–0.657 0.0128 0.2553 No 
Danofloxacin <0.0009–0.042 0.0009 0.0171 No 
Enoxacin <0.401–0.219 0.01 0.4016 No 
Enrofloxacin <0.0005–0.219 0.0005 0.005 No 
Norfloxacin <0.0393–0.210 0.001 0.0393 No 
Ketoprofen <0.0065–0.561 0.0065 0.0646 No 
Gemfibrozil <0.0085–0.293 0.0085 0.085 No 

a: health based target; b: SES RS 320/2014.

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