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Table 6.

Economic water productivity (EWP) of various crops in the Sina irrigation system in Maharashtra, India.

CropTechnology/practiceCrop-technology/practiceCost of cultivationCost of technologyYieldPrice of commodityIrrigation CWUValue of output per m3 of irrigation CWU
(1,000 INR/ha)(1,000 INR/ha)(kg/ha)(INR/m3)(m3/ha)Gross EWP (INR/m3)Net EWP (INR/m3)
Rice Conventional Rice – conv. 55 0.00 4,295 13.33 4,908 11.66 0.38 
Sorghum Conventional Sorghum – conv. 0.00 612 18.16 3,226 3.44 1.14 
Wheat Conventional Wheat – conv. 14 0.00 2,274 8.12 3,769 4.90 1.23 
Groundnut Conventional Groundnut – conv. 45 0.00 1,282 52.42 4,377 15.35 5.13 
Rice System of rice intensification Rice – SRI 44 0.92 5,468 13.33 4,908 14.85 5.91 
Rice Alternate wet and dry irrigation (AWD) Rice – AWD 51 1.60 6,580 13.33 4,908 17.87 7.44 
Rice Direct-sown seed Rice – DSS 46 0.22 6,280 13.33 4,908 17.06 7.74 
Groundnut IW/cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) = 0.4 Groundnut – IW/CPE0.4 43 0.60 1,477 52.42 4,377 17.69 7.93 
Groundnut Border strip method Groundnut – BSM 44 0.80 1,684 52.42 4,377 20.17 10.14 
Mango High-density plantation Mango – HDP 510 15.80 15,000 40.00 6,326 94.85 14.25 
Maize Conventional Maize – conv. 48 0.00 5,010 16.20 2,271 35.74 14.65 
Maize IW/CPE = 0.6 Maize – IW/CPE0.6 48 0.60 5,050 16.20 2,271 36.03 14.93 
Maize Alternate furrow irrigation Maize – AFI 47 0.60 5,010 16.20 2,271 35.74 15.00 
Lime Conventional Lime – conv. 110 0.00 8,614 24.03 6,326 32.72 15.33 
Mango Conventional Mango – conv. 200 0.00 7,500 40.00 6,326 47.42 15.81 
Sunflower Conventional Sunflower – conv. 26 0.00 1,890 33.00 2,301 27.10 15.89 
Sunflower Ridge and furrow irrigation Sunflower – RFI 23 0.60 2,104 33.00 2,301 30.17 20.40 
Sugarcane Conventional Sugarcane – conv. 118 0.00 110,000 2.85 9,209 34.04 21.24 
Chickpeas Conventional Chickpea – conv. 18 0.00 1,870 59.33 3,457 32.09 26.81 
Sugarcane Drip with conventional planting Sugarcane – DRIP 104 13.55 123,000 2.85 9,209 38.07 26.82 
Sugarcane Subsurface drip 100% PE and 100% RDF Sugarcane – SSDRIP100PE 102 12.10 123,000 2.85 9,209 38.07 26.98 
Sugarcane Drip with fertigation Sugarcane – DRIPFERT 104 14.45 126,000 2.85 9,209 39.00 27.65 
Sugarcane Subsurface drip 80 PE and75% RDF Sugarcane – SSDRIP80PE 102 12.10 126,000 2.85 9,209 39.00 27.91 
Sugarcane Drip with improved planting method Sugarcane – DRIPIPM 103 12.64 131,000 2.85 9,209 40.54 29.40 
Sugarcane Drip and fertigation with improved planting Sugarcane – DRIPFERTIPM 104 13.55 132,500 2.85 9,209 41.01 29.76 
Chickpea Integrated water management Chickpea – IWM 19 0.68 2,090 59.33 3,457 35.87 30.39 
Groundnut Sprinkler Groundnut – SPRINK 37 6.86 3,280 52.42 4,377 39.28 30.86 
Groundnut Integrated nutrient management Groundnut – INM 37 6.86 3,280 52.42 4,377 39.28 30.86 
Lucerne Sprinkler Lucerne – SPRINK 0.00 40,000 3.50 4,206 33.29 32.77 
Onion Conventional Onion – conv. 96 0.00 12,200 28.00 5,090 67.12 48.25 
Onion Sprinkler Onion – SPRINK 97 1.45 13,000 28.00 5,090 71.52 52.37 
Pomegranate Drip irrigation Pomegranate – DRIP 100 0.00 9,673 47.97 6,326 73.34 57.54 
Tomatoes Conventional Tomatoes – conv. 41 0.00 35,000 13.00 5,090 89.40 81.36 
Banana Conventional Banana – conventional 115 0.00 42,500 24.03 6,326 161.44 143.31 
Banana Drip irrigation Banana – DRIP 90 12.64 56,250 24.03 6,326 213.67 199.38 
Tomato Precision land leveling Tomato – PLL 42 40,000 28 5,090 220.00 212.00 
Banana Drip and fertigation Banana – DRIFERT 114 22 63,000 24 6,326 239.00 221.00 
Banana Tissue cultured Banana – TC 464 18 82,500 24 6,326 313.00 240.00 
CropTechnology/practiceCrop-technology/practiceCost of cultivationCost of technologyYieldPrice of commodityIrrigation CWUValue of output per m3 of irrigation CWU
(1,000 INR/ha)(1,000 INR/ha)(kg/ha)(INR/m3)(m3/ha)Gross EWP (INR/m3)Net EWP (INR/m3)
Rice Conventional Rice – conv. 55 0.00 4,295 13.33 4,908 11.66 0.38 
Sorghum Conventional Sorghum – conv. 0.00 612 18.16 3,226 3.44 1.14 
Wheat Conventional Wheat – conv. 14 0.00 2,274 8.12 3,769 4.90 1.23 
Groundnut Conventional Groundnut – conv. 45 0.00 1,282 52.42 4,377 15.35 5.13 
Rice System of rice intensification Rice – SRI 44 0.92 5,468 13.33 4,908 14.85 5.91 
Rice Alternate wet and dry irrigation (AWD) Rice – AWD 51 1.60 6,580 13.33 4,908 17.87 7.44 
Rice Direct-sown seed Rice – DSS 46 0.22 6,280 13.33 4,908 17.06 7.74 
Groundnut IW/cumulative pan evaporation (CPE) = 0.4 Groundnut – IW/CPE0.4 43 0.60 1,477 52.42 4,377 17.69 7.93 
Groundnut Border strip method Groundnut – BSM 44 0.80 1,684 52.42 4,377 20.17 10.14 
Mango High-density plantation Mango – HDP 510 15.80 15,000 40.00 6,326 94.85 14.25 
Maize Conventional Maize – conv. 48 0.00 5,010 16.20 2,271 35.74 14.65 
Maize IW/CPE = 0.6 Maize – IW/CPE0.6 48 0.60 5,050 16.20 2,271 36.03 14.93 
Maize Alternate furrow irrigation Maize – AFI 47 0.60 5,010 16.20 2,271 35.74 15.00 
Lime Conventional Lime – conv. 110 0.00 8,614 24.03 6,326 32.72 15.33 
Mango Conventional Mango – conv. 200 0.00 7,500 40.00 6,326 47.42 15.81 
Sunflower Conventional Sunflower – conv. 26 0.00 1,890 33.00 2,301 27.10 15.89 
Sunflower Ridge and furrow irrigation Sunflower – RFI 23 0.60 2,104 33.00 2,301 30.17 20.40 
Sugarcane Conventional Sugarcane – conv. 118 0.00 110,000 2.85 9,209 34.04 21.24 
Chickpeas Conventional Chickpea – conv. 18 0.00 1,870 59.33 3,457 32.09 26.81 
Sugarcane Drip with conventional planting Sugarcane – DRIP 104 13.55 123,000 2.85 9,209 38.07 26.82 
Sugarcane Subsurface drip 100% PE and 100% RDF Sugarcane – SSDRIP100PE 102 12.10 123,000 2.85 9,209 38.07 26.98 
Sugarcane Drip with fertigation Sugarcane – DRIPFERT 104 14.45 126,000 2.85 9,209 39.00 27.65 
Sugarcane Subsurface drip 80 PE and75% RDF Sugarcane – SSDRIP80PE 102 12.10 126,000 2.85 9,209 39.00 27.91 
Sugarcane Drip with improved planting method Sugarcane – DRIPIPM 103 12.64 131,000 2.85 9,209 40.54 29.40 
Sugarcane Drip and fertigation with improved planting Sugarcane – DRIPFERTIPM 104 13.55 132,500 2.85 9,209 41.01 29.76 
Chickpea Integrated water management Chickpea – IWM 19 0.68 2,090 59.33 3,457 35.87 30.39 
Groundnut Sprinkler Groundnut – SPRINK 37 6.86 3,280 52.42 4,377 39.28 30.86 
Groundnut Integrated nutrient management Groundnut – INM 37 6.86 3,280 52.42 4,377 39.28 30.86 
Lucerne Sprinkler Lucerne – SPRINK 0.00 40,000 3.50 4,206 33.29 32.77 
Onion Conventional Onion – conv. 96 0.00 12,200 28.00 5,090 67.12 48.25 
Onion Sprinkler Onion – SPRINK 97 1.45 13,000 28.00 5,090 71.52 52.37 
Pomegranate Drip irrigation Pomegranate – DRIP 100 0.00 9,673 47.97 6,326 73.34 57.54 
Tomatoes Conventional Tomatoes – conv. 41 0.00 35,000 13.00 5,090 89.40 81.36 
Banana Conventional Banana – conventional 115 0.00 42,500 24.03 6,326 161.44 143.31 
Banana Drip irrigation Banana – DRIP 90 12.64 56,250 24.03 6,326 213.67 199.38 
Tomato Precision land leveling Tomato – PLL 42 40,000 28 5,090 220.00 212.00 
Banana Drip and fertigation Banana – DRIFERT 114 22 63,000 24 6,326 239.00 221.00 
Banana Tissue cultured Banana – TC 464 18 82,500 24 6,326 313.00 240.00 

Notes: AWD, Alternative wet and dry irrigation; SRI, System of rice intensification; DSS, direct-sown seed; IWPCE, Irrigation water cumulative pan evaporation; HDP, High-density plantation; AFI, Alternative furrow irrigation; RFI, Ridge and furrow irrigation; SSDRIP100PE, Subsurface drip with 100% pan evaporation; DRIPFERT, drip with fertigation; DRIPIPM, drip irrigation with improved planting; IWM, Integrated Water Management; SPRINK, Sprinkler irrigation; PLL, Precision land leveling; TC, Tissue culture.

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