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Table 3

Wastewater treatment using plant-based grafted bioflocculants

Plant-based grafted bioflocculantGrafting methodTreated wastewaterParametersGrafted-bioflocculant dosage (ppm)Flocculation efficiencyReferences
Quaternization of Cassia tora gum galactomannan (QCTG) i.e. 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC), quaternary ammonium group grafted on the backbone of galactomannan Taguchi L'16 (45) orthogonal array design Textile, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and as wet-end additives in paper industry 2 h at 30 °C, sodium hydroxide, (0.0125 mol), CHPTAC, (0.00319 mol) and gum–liquor ratio (1: 15) QCTG (DS = 0.112) Turbidity Sharma et al. (2020)  
Rice straw biochar (RSB) modified by aluminium chloride Charge neutralization, incompressible and permeable sludge cakes (skeleton structures builder) Dewatering of the sludge from municipal sewage treatment plant 30 mins, SV30%, specific resistance to filtration (SRF)
(79.8%, 1.2 × 1012 m/kg), moisture content (MC) (81.4%) and capillary suction time (CST) (38 s) 
0.3 g RSB/g (dry sludge) 19.4 kg/(m2·h) of dewatering Guo et al. (2019)  
Octopus-like lignin-grafted cationic polyacrylamide (L-CPA) flocculant Self-assembly, grafting to strategy using acrylamide (AM), methylacryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) Water flocculation 30 mins, pH = 5 4.0–4.5 mg/L of L-CPA Kaolin suspension, L2-CPA-3 (92%), L2-CPA-4 (90%) and L2-CPA-5 (82%) Chen et al. (2020)  
Polyacrylamide-grafted fenugreek gum (FG-g-PAM) Microwave-assisted and thermal synthesis technique of graft copolymerization Wastewater treatment by deflocculation and refloccculation 15 min, pH 4 at 25 °C 1 ppm 96% turbidity removal by microwave-assisted process, 89% efficiency of turbidity by thermally synthesized grade Mishra & Kundu (2019)  
Plant-based Tacca leontopetaloides biopolymer flocculant (TBPF) Gelatinization Leachate treatment pH 3 240 mg/L Turbidity reduced from 218 to 45.8–54.5 NTU, total suspended solids (TSS) from 214 to 19.3–19.9 mg/L and color from 14201 to 852–994 PtCo Makhtar et al. (2020)  
Plant-based grafted bioflocculantGrafting methodTreated wastewaterParametersGrafted-bioflocculant dosage (ppm)Flocculation efficiencyReferences
Quaternization of Cassia tora gum galactomannan (QCTG) i.e. 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC), quaternary ammonium group grafted on the backbone of galactomannan Taguchi L'16 (45) orthogonal array design Textile, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and as wet-end additives in paper industry 2 h at 30 °C, sodium hydroxide, (0.0125 mol), CHPTAC, (0.00319 mol) and gum–liquor ratio (1: 15) QCTG (DS = 0.112) Turbidity Sharma et al. (2020)  
Rice straw biochar (RSB) modified by aluminium chloride Charge neutralization, incompressible and permeable sludge cakes (skeleton structures builder) Dewatering of the sludge from municipal sewage treatment plant 30 mins, SV30%, specific resistance to filtration (SRF)
(79.8%, 1.2 × 1012 m/kg), moisture content (MC) (81.4%) and capillary suction time (CST) (38 s) 
0.3 g RSB/g (dry sludge) 19.4 kg/(m2·h) of dewatering Guo et al. (2019)  
Octopus-like lignin-grafted cationic polyacrylamide (L-CPA) flocculant Self-assembly, grafting to strategy using acrylamide (AM), methylacryloyloxyethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) and enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) Water flocculation 30 mins, pH = 5 4.0–4.5 mg/L of L-CPA Kaolin suspension, L2-CPA-3 (92%), L2-CPA-4 (90%) and L2-CPA-5 (82%) Chen et al. (2020)  
Polyacrylamide-grafted fenugreek gum (FG-g-PAM) Microwave-assisted and thermal synthesis technique of graft copolymerization Wastewater treatment by deflocculation and refloccculation 15 min, pH 4 at 25 °C 1 ppm 96% turbidity removal by microwave-assisted process, 89% efficiency of turbidity by thermally synthesized grade Mishra & Kundu (2019)  
Plant-based Tacca leontopetaloides biopolymer flocculant (TBPF) Gelatinization Leachate treatment pH 3 240 mg/L Turbidity reduced from 218 to 45.8–54.5 NTU, total suspended solids (TSS) from 214 to 19.3–19.9 mg/L and color from 14201 to 852–994 PtCo Makhtar et al. (2020)  
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