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Table 1

The 21 CMIP5 models included and used in this study (Samuels et al. 2018)

No.Model nameModeling centerHistorical periodAtmospheric resolution
ACCESS1-0 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization and Bureau of Meteorology, Australia 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.25° 
BCC-CSM1-1 Beijing Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, China 1850–2012 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
BNU-ESM College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, China 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
CanESM2 Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Canada 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
CCSM4 National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA 1850–2005 1.875° × 0.625° 
CESM1-BGC Community Earth System Model Contributors, USA 1850–2005 1.875° × 0.625° 
CNRM-CM5 Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques/Centre Européen de Recherche et Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique, France 1850–2005 1.4118° × 1.4063° 
CSIRO-MK3-6-0 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization/Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence, Australia 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.875° 
GFDL-CM3 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA 1860–2005 2.5° × 2° 
10 GFDL-ESM2G 1861–2005 2.5° × 2° 
11 GFDL-ESM2M 1861–2005 2.5° × 2° 
12 INMCM4 Institute for Numerical Mathematics, Russia 1850–2005 2° × 2.5° 
13 IPSL-CM5A-L-R Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace, France 1850–2005 3.75° × 1.875° 
14 IPSL-CM5A-M-R 1850–2005 2.5° × 1.2587° 
15 MIROC5 The University of Tokyo, National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan 1850–2012 1.4063° × 1.4063° 
16 MIROC-ESM-CHEM 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
17 MIROC-ESM 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
18 MPI-ESM-LR Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.875° 
19 MPI-ESM-MR 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.875° 
20 MRI-CGCM3 Meteorological Research Institute, Japan 1850–2005 1.125° × 1.125° 
21 NorESM1-M Norwegian Climate Centre, Norway 1850–2005 2.5° × 1.875° 
No.Model nameModeling centerHistorical periodAtmospheric resolution
ACCESS1-0 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization and Bureau of Meteorology, Australia 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.25° 
BCC-CSM1-1 Beijing Climate Center, China Meteorological Administration, China 1850–2012 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
BNU-ESM College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, China 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
CanESM2 Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Canada 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
CCSM4 National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA 1850–2005 1.875° × 0.625° 
CESM1-BGC Community Earth System Model Contributors, USA 1850–2005 1.875° × 0.625° 
CNRM-CM5 Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques/Centre Européen de Recherche et Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique, France 1850–2005 1.4118° × 1.4063° 
CSIRO-MK3-6-0 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization/Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence, Australia 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.875° 
GFDL-CM3 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA 1860–2005 2.5° × 2° 
10 GFDL-ESM2G 1861–2005 2.5° × 2° 
11 GFDL-ESM2M 1861–2005 2.5° × 2° 
12 INMCM4 Institute for Numerical Mathematics, Russia 1850–2005 2° × 2.5° 
13 IPSL-CM5A-L-R Institute Pierre-Simon Laplace, France 1850–2005 3.75° × 1.875° 
14 IPSL-CM5A-M-R 1850–2005 2.5° × 1.2587° 
15 MIROC5 The University of Tokyo, National Institute for Environmental Studies, and Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Japan 1850–2012 1.4063° × 1.4063° 
16 MIROC-ESM-CHEM 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
17 MIROC-ESM 1850–2005 2.8125° × 2.8125° 
18 MPI-ESM-LR Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.875° 
19 MPI-ESM-MR 1850–2005 1.875° × 1.875° 
20 MRI-CGCM3 Meteorological Research Institute, Japan 1850–2005 1.125° × 1.125° 
21 NorESM1-M Norwegian Climate Centre, Norway 1850–2005 2.5° × 1.875° 
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