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Table 2

Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models for a cross-sectional survey of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors for STH infections and diarrhea in NSR, Guatemala – 2010

VariableUnivariable
Multivariable
ORa95% CIbp-valueOR95% CIp-value
STH analysis 
HH possessions SES factor = 1* 0.11 0.04, 0.34 <0.001 0.36 0.09, 1.52 0.16 
Finished floors (vs. natural) 0.18 0.08, 0.41 <0.001 0.16 0.05, 0.50 0.002 
Water used for drinking, observed 
 Bottled vs. improved 0.78 0.21, 2.96 0.72 7.16 0.76, 67.10 0.08 
 Other improved vs. improved 5.57 1.90, 16.36 0.002 7.00 1.22, 40.14 0.03 
 Unimproved vs. improved 6.09 1.52, 24.37 0.01 5.25 0.83, 33.37 0.08 
Age/sex§ 
 WCBA vs. other adults 1.11 0.53, 2.35 0.78 0.97 0.42, 2.27 0.94 
 School-age children vs. other adults 2.38 1.22, 4.65 0.01 2.35 1.10, 4.99 0.03 
 Preschool-age children vs. other adults 1.43 0.59, 3.46 0.43 1.12 0.38, 3.34 0.84 
Median number of people per bedroom >2.5 3.34 1.22, 9.09 0.02    
Water present at handwashing station, observed 0.33 0.14, 0.75 0.009    
Water present at handwashing station, observed, by median number of people per bedroom 
  > 2.5    0.32 0.11, 0.98 0.05 
  ≤ 2.5    3.47 0.62, 19.47 0.16 
Diarrhea analysis 
Method for drying hands, observed# 
 Use garment vs. air dry 1.91 0.73, 5.00 0.19 1.98 0.73, 5.39 0.18 
 Use towel vs. air dry 0.81 0.30, 2.20 0.69 0.88 0.30, 2.55 0.81 
Time spent collecting water >10 min 2.22 1.19, 4.13 0.01 1.90 1.02, 3.56 0.04 
Handwashing station within 10 m of sanitation facility 2.44 1.04, 5.74 0.04 3.69 1.33, 10.21 0.01 
Age group** 
 School-age children vs. adults 1.35 0.76, 2.39 0.31 1.30 0.71, 2.37 0.40 
 Preschool-age children vs. adults 3.07 1.72, 5.50 < 0.001 3.33 1.83, 6.04 < 0.001 
VariableUnivariable
Multivariable
ORa95% CIbp-valueOR95% CIp-value
STH analysis 
HH possessions SES factor = 1* 0.11 0.04, 0.34 <0.001 0.36 0.09, 1.52 0.16 
Finished floors (vs. natural) 0.18 0.08, 0.41 <0.001 0.16 0.05, 0.50 0.002 
Water used for drinking, observed 
 Bottled vs. improved 0.78 0.21, 2.96 0.72 7.16 0.76, 67.10 0.08 
 Other improved vs. improved 5.57 1.90, 16.36 0.002 7.00 1.22, 40.14 0.03 
 Unimproved vs. improved 6.09 1.52, 24.37 0.01 5.25 0.83, 33.37 0.08 
Age/sex§ 
 WCBA vs. other adults 1.11 0.53, 2.35 0.78 0.97 0.42, 2.27 0.94 
 School-age children vs. other adults 2.38 1.22, 4.65 0.01 2.35 1.10, 4.99 0.03 
 Preschool-age children vs. other adults 1.43 0.59, 3.46 0.43 1.12 0.38, 3.34 0.84 
Median number of people per bedroom >2.5 3.34 1.22, 9.09 0.02    
Water present at handwashing station, observed 0.33 0.14, 0.75 0.009    
Water present at handwashing station, observed, by median number of people per bedroom 
  > 2.5    0.32 0.11, 0.98 0.05 
  ≤ 2.5    3.47 0.62, 19.47 0.16 
Diarrhea analysis 
Method for drying hands, observed# 
 Use garment vs. air dry 1.91 0.73, 5.00 0.19 1.98 0.73, 5.39 0.18 
 Use towel vs. air dry 0.81 0.30, 2.20 0.69 0.88 0.30, 2.55 0.81 
Time spent collecting water >10 min 2.22 1.19, 4.13 0.01 1.90 1.02, 3.56 0.04 
Handwashing station within 10 m of sanitation facility 2.44 1.04, 5.74 0.04 3.69 1.33, 10.21 0.01 
Age group** 
 School-age children vs. adults 1.35 0.76, 2.39 0.31 1.30 0.71, 2.37 0.40 
 Preschool-age children vs. adults 3.07 1.72, 5.50 < 0.001 3.33 1.83, 6.04 < 0.001 

aOR – odds ratio.

b95% confidence interval [CI].

*SES variables were determined by factor analysis of 18 variables concerning family member possessions (including possession of animals and animal types), education level of the mother, monthly household income, and household wall construction material. The analysis generated two factors: the first dealing with household possessions, mother's education, monthly income, and wall construction, and the second dealing with household possession of animals. Only the first factor was statistically significant in univariable analysis.

Finished floors include wood, vinyl, ceramic tiles, cement, carpet, and brick. Natural earthen floors include sand, dung, straw, and sawdust.

Modified WHO/UNICEF Water Ladder (WHO and UNICEF 2010): unimproved water (unprotected dug well, unprotected spring, water cart, tanker truck, surface water); other improved water (public tap, borehole, protected dug well, protected spring, rainwater collection); bottled water; and improved water (piped household water connection located inside the dwelling, yard, or plot).

§Age/sex categories included PSAC 1–4 years old, SAC 5–14 years old, WCBA 15–44 years old, and other adults 15 years old.

Crowded homes defined as >2.5 people per bedroom, the median of people per bedroom in the dataset.

Due to the interaction between crowding and water present at the handwashing station in the STH multivariable model, results for water present at each crowding category are given. Univariable results are presented for each of these variables individually.

#Interviewer observed household spokesperson complete a handwashing demonstration and dry hands at the main handwashing place for the household.

**Age group categories included PSAC 1–4 years old, SAC 5–14 years old, and adults 15 years old.

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