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Table 2

Differences in contextual factors of participants of good versus poor mental health

VariablesScaleGood mental health
M (SD) and %
N = 467
Poor mental health
M (SD) and %
N = 171
Differences
p-value
Gender Male/Female Female 57.8% Female 63.2% 0.224 
Age in years  38.39 (15.29) 38.83 (15.73) 0.747 
Marital status*** Yes/No (married = 1, unmarried = 0) Married 87.7% Married 70.6% 0.000 
Education in years  5.97 (3.57) 5.58 (3.76) 0.239 
Literacy** Yes/No Yes 72.4% Yes 59.6% 0.002 
Household size  5.46 (2.28) 5.25 (2.21) 0.321 
Income (MWK: Malawi Kwacha)  12,296.00 (24,442.62) 9,273.73 (14,064.33) 0.133 
Wealth Index (radio, TV, mobile phone, electricity, and running water) Yes/No; sum scale range min. 0 to max. 5 0.95 (1.02) 0.87 (1.00) 0.363 
Hunger*** 5-point response scale from 1 to 5 2.60 (1.52) 3.18 (1.39) 0.000 
Anxiety about health situation*** 5-point response scale from 1 to 5 1.78 (1.22) 2.25 (1.38) 0.000 
Diarrhea** 6-point response scale from 1 to 6 1.42 (0.67) 1.62 (0.90) 0.003 
VariablesScaleGood mental health
M (SD) and %
N = 467
Poor mental health
M (SD) and %
N = 171
Differences
p-value
Gender Male/Female Female 57.8% Female 63.2% 0.224 
Age in years  38.39 (15.29) 38.83 (15.73) 0.747 
Marital status*** Yes/No (married = 1, unmarried = 0) Married 87.7% Married 70.6% 0.000 
Education in years  5.97 (3.57) 5.58 (3.76) 0.239 
Literacy** Yes/No Yes 72.4% Yes 59.6% 0.002 
Household size  5.46 (2.28) 5.25 (2.21) 0.321 
Income (MWK: Malawi Kwacha)  12,296.00 (24,442.62) 9,273.73 (14,064.33) 0.133 
Wealth Index (radio, TV, mobile phone, electricity, and running water) Yes/No; sum scale range min. 0 to max. 5 0.95 (1.02) 0.87 (1.00) 0.363 
Hunger*** 5-point response scale from 1 to 5 2.60 (1.52) 3.18 (1.39) 0.000 
Anxiety about health situation*** 5-point response scale from 1 to 5 1.78 (1.22) 2.25 (1.38) 0.000 
Diarrhea** 6-point response scale from 1 to 6 1.42 (0.67) 1.62 (0.90) 0.003 

Note. Good mental health N = 467; poor mental health N = 171. Questions: Do you suffer from hunger often? Measure ranged from 1 – never to 5 – very often. How anxious are you about the future situation of your family? Measure ranged from 1 – not at all to 5 – very much. How frequently do you suffer from diarrhea? Response: from 1 – never to 6 – more than 1 day per week.

*p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001.

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