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Table 4

Differences in changes in RANAS psychosocial factors between people with good mental health versus poor mental health

Good mental health
Poor mental health
Diff. in changes
Factor groupBehavioral factorsM (SD) FM (SD) BLM (SD) diff. of mean t-testM (SD) FM (SD) BLM (SD) diff. of mean t-testp-value
Risk factors Vulnerability 1.85 (1.16) 2.33 (1.23) −0.48 (1.55) 2.32 (1.36) 2.51 (1.28) −0.21 (1.81) 0.000 
Severity 4.12 (0.99) 4.47 (0.85) −0.34 (1.23) 4.18 (0.99) 4.41 (0.87) −0.23 (1.34) 0.490 
Health knowledge 9.97 (1.77) 10.31 (1.81) −0.34 (2.25) 9.87 (1.91) 9.97 (2.00) −0.13 (2.56) 0.518 
Attitude factors Belief about costs and benefits (effort) 1.16 (0.70) 1.23 (0.74) −0.06 (1.04) 1.18 (0.72) 1.14 (0.60) 0.04 (0.97) 0.867 
Belief about costs and benefits (time consuming) 1.14 (0.67) 1.20 (0.70) −0.06 (0.99) 1.26 (0.91) 1.17 (0.72) 0.10 (1.19) 0.062 
Belief about costs and benefits (expensive)* 1.29 (0.84) 1.50 (0.98) −0.21 (1.24) 1.57 (1.14) 1.49 (1.04) 0.07 (1.56) 0.001 
Belief about costs and benefits (certain for prevention) 3.98 (1.12) 3.79 (1.27) .22 (1.67) 4.04 (1.09) 3.86 (1.21) 0.17 (1.56) 0.569 
Feelings (like)* 3.94 (1.11) 3.33 (1.37) 0.61 (1.75) 3.73 (1.26) 3.43 (1.42) 0.30 (1.90) 0.041 
Norm factors Others’ behavior HH 4.19 (1.16) 3.37 (1.46) 0.83 (1.83) 4.09 (1.23) 3.33 (1.48) 0.77 (1.92) 0.358 
Others’ behavior Village 3.59 (1.15) 2.85 (1.22) 0.75 (1.64) 3.52 (1.20) 2.89 (1.16) 0.64 (1.64) 0.511 
Others approval 4.30 (1.00) 3.92 (1.24) 0.38 (1.57) 4.24 (1.07) 4.06 (1.18) 0.19 (1.62) 0.547 
Personal importance (obligation) 2.67 (1.72) 2.43 (1.48) 0.23 (2.33) 2.82 (1.77) 2.57 (1.63) 0.27 (2.41) 0.303 
Ability factors Confidence in performance 3.98 (1.12) 3.62 (1.27) 0.35 (1.75) 3.88 (1.21) 3.67 (1.26) 0.22 (1.74) 0.332 
Confidence in performance (difficult water) 1.20 (0.78) 1.40 (0.10) −0.20 (1.28) 1.16 (0.65) 1.43 (1.02) −0.27 (1.19) 0.538 
Confidence in performance (difficult soap) 1.52 (1.00) 1.96 (1.26) −0.44 (1.62) 1.92 (1.29) 2.11 (1.43) −0.18 (1.90) 0.000 
Confidence in performance (difficult time) 1.22 (0.72) 1.27 (0.79) −0.05 (1.05) 1.31 (0.94) 1.36 (0.97) −0.04 (1.32) 0.182 
Confidence in continuation (distance) 3.87 (1.16) 3.49 (1.29) 0.37 (1.72) 3.83 (1.24) 3.64 (1.23) 0.17 (1.65) 0.743 
Self-regulation factors Commitment (committed) 4.11 (1.05) 3.86 (1.16) 0.26 (1.60) 4.05 (1.15) 3.88 (1.15) 0.15 (1.55) 0.489 
Commitment (important) 4.19 (1.12) 4.17 (1.08) 0.03 (1.51) 4.21 (1.03) 4.18 (1.05) 0.02 (1.48) 0.808 
Remembering (pay attention) 3.81 (1.11) 3.31 (1.28) 0.50 (1.67) 3.61 (1.29) 3.31 (1.31) 0.28 (1.78) 0.060 
Remembering (forgetting last 24 h) 1.95 (1.31) 2.39 (1.45) −0.44 (1.92) 2.07 (1.36) 2.60 (1.51) −0.52 (2.00) 0.296 
Add. factor Communication 3.72 (1.07) 3.10 (1.23) 0.62 (1.56) 3.68 (1.14) 3.19 (1.15) 0.49 (1.59) 0.685 
Good mental health
Poor mental health
Diff. in changes
Factor groupBehavioral factorsM (SD) FM (SD) BLM (SD) diff. of mean t-testM (SD) FM (SD) BLM (SD) diff. of mean t-testp-value
Risk factors Vulnerability 1.85 (1.16) 2.33 (1.23) −0.48 (1.55) 2.32 (1.36) 2.51 (1.28) −0.21 (1.81) 0.000 
Severity 4.12 (0.99) 4.47 (0.85) −0.34 (1.23) 4.18 (0.99) 4.41 (0.87) −0.23 (1.34) 0.490 
Health knowledge 9.97 (1.77) 10.31 (1.81) −0.34 (2.25) 9.87 (1.91) 9.97 (2.00) −0.13 (2.56) 0.518 
Attitude factors Belief about costs and benefits (effort) 1.16 (0.70) 1.23 (0.74) −0.06 (1.04) 1.18 (0.72) 1.14 (0.60) 0.04 (0.97) 0.867 
Belief about costs and benefits (time consuming) 1.14 (0.67) 1.20 (0.70) −0.06 (0.99) 1.26 (0.91) 1.17 (0.72) 0.10 (1.19) 0.062 
Belief about costs and benefits (expensive)* 1.29 (0.84) 1.50 (0.98) −0.21 (1.24) 1.57 (1.14) 1.49 (1.04) 0.07 (1.56) 0.001 
Belief about costs and benefits (certain for prevention) 3.98 (1.12) 3.79 (1.27) .22 (1.67) 4.04 (1.09) 3.86 (1.21) 0.17 (1.56) 0.569 
Feelings (like)* 3.94 (1.11) 3.33 (1.37) 0.61 (1.75) 3.73 (1.26) 3.43 (1.42) 0.30 (1.90) 0.041 
Norm factors Others’ behavior HH 4.19 (1.16) 3.37 (1.46) 0.83 (1.83) 4.09 (1.23) 3.33 (1.48) 0.77 (1.92) 0.358 
Others’ behavior Village 3.59 (1.15) 2.85 (1.22) 0.75 (1.64) 3.52 (1.20) 2.89 (1.16) 0.64 (1.64) 0.511 
Others approval 4.30 (1.00) 3.92 (1.24) 0.38 (1.57) 4.24 (1.07) 4.06 (1.18) 0.19 (1.62) 0.547 
Personal importance (obligation) 2.67 (1.72) 2.43 (1.48) 0.23 (2.33) 2.82 (1.77) 2.57 (1.63) 0.27 (2.41) 0.303 
Ability factors Confidence in performance 3.98 (1.12) 3.62 (1.27) 0.35 (1.75) 3.88 (1.21) 3.67 (1.26) 0.22 (1.74) 0.332 
Confidence in performance (difficult water) 1.20 (0.78) 1.40 (0.10) −0.20 (1.28) 1.16 (0.65) 1.43 (1.02) −0.27 (1.19) 0.538 
Confidence in performance (difficult soap) 1.52 (1.00) 1.96 (1.26) −0.44 (1.62) 1.92 (1.29) 2.11 (1.43) −0.18 (1.90) 0.000 
Confidence in performance (difficult time) 1.22 (0.72) 1.27 (0.79) −0.05 (1.05) 1.31 (0.94) 1.36 (0.97) −0.04 (1.32) 0.182 
Confidence in continuation (distance) 3.87 (1.16) 3.49 (1.29) 0.37 (1.72) 3.83 (1.24) 3.64 (1.23) 0.17 (1.65) 0.743 
Self-regulation factors Commitment (committed) 4.11 (1.05) 3.86 (1.16) 0.26 (1.60) 4.05 (1.15) 3.88 (1.15) 0.15 (1.55) 0.489 
Commitment (important) 4.19 (1.12) 4.17 (1.08) 0.03 (1.51) 4.21 (1.03) 4.18 (1.05) 0.02 (1.48) 0.808 
Remembering (pay attention) 3.81 (1.11) 3.31 (1.28) 0.50 (1.67) 3.61 (1.29) 3.31 (1.31) 0.28 (1.78) 0.060 
Remembering (forgetting last 24 h) 1.95 (1.31) 2.39 (1.45) −0.44 (1.92) 2.07 (1.36) 2.60 (1.51) −0.52 (2.00) 0.296 
Add. factor Communication 3.72 (1.07) 3.10 (1.23) 0.62 (1.56) 3.68 (1.14) 3.19 (1.15) 0.49 (1.59) 0.685 

Note. N = 611. ANOVA mean comparison. BL = baseline, F = follow-up. All questions included 5-point response scales and response choices from ‘1 – not at all’ to ‘5 – very much’. Health Knowledge: sum scale (0–15).

*p ≤ 0.05, **p ≤ 0.01, ***p ≤ 0.001.

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