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Table 1

Overview of resources that can be recovered from unsegregated urban wastewater, recovery technologies applied, recovered products, scale, TRL, region and project

Recoverable resourceTechnologies appliedProductsScaleTRLRegionProjectProject periodReference
Reclaimed water, energy and nutrients Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) + constructed wetlands + UV disinfection Fertigation water; domestic non-potable water Micro, meso Lesvos Island, Greece HYDROUSA 2018–2022 https://www.hydrousa.org/ 
Combination with shred kitchen waste, liquid-solid separation, green walls, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), UV hygienisation Fertigation water; biogas, fertiliser, domestic non-potable water Micro Austria, Spain HOUSEFUL 2018–2022 https://houseful.eu/ 
Hybrid constructed wetland, evapotranspirative willow system with zero discharge, algae-based technology Fertigation water, woodchips for heat production Micro, meso Slovenia GreenT (Slovenian Research Agency J2 − 8162 and Z2 − 6751) 2017–2020 http://www2.zf.uni-lj.si/si/component/content/article/32-raziskovanje-splosno/2489-zapiranje-snovnih-poti-pri-ciscenju-komunalnih-odpadnih-voda-z-zelenimi-tehnologijami-j2-8162 
Nutrients Adsorption columns and planted filters Nutrients for irrigation water Micro 3–4 Barcelona and Almería, Spain INCOVER 2019–2021 https://incover-project.eu/technologies/nutrient-recovery 
Organic carbon (carbo-hydrates) Two-stage anaerobic-photosynthetic High Rate Algae Pond system Biopolymers Micro Chiclana de la Frontera and Almería, Spain INCOVER 2019–2021 https://incover-project.eu/technologies 
Two sequencing batch reactors (SBR): one for heterotrophic bacterial growth and the other for growth of autotrophic nitrifiers Biopolymers (PHA) and P-rich sludge Macro Manresa, Spain SMART-Plant 2016–2019 http://www.smart-plant.eu/ 
Mixed microbial cultures, activated sludge at WWTP, bioprocess facilitating feast and famine conditions, biomass is fed with VFA-rich liquors, pure acetic and propionic acids Biopolymers (PHA) Meso 6–7 Netherlands Phario 2015–2019 http://phario.eu/ 
Alginate extraction from granular excess sludge from 3 municipal Nereda®-plants and one industrial one Alginates Macro WWTP Epe, Dinxperlo, Vroomshoop, Netherlands National Alginate Research Programme 2013–2019 https://www.royalhaskoningdhv.com/en-gb/news-room/news/water-authorities-working-hard-to-achieve-circular-economy/7123 
Alginate extraction from Nereda®-granular excess sludge Kaumera Nereda® Gum (formerly: Neoalginate) Macro 7–8 WWTP Zuthpen, Netherlands KAUMERA 2016–2018 https://kaumera.com/english/ 
Lipids Two-stage aerobic/anaerobic reactor, M. parvicella bacterium accumulates FOG (fat, oil, grease), lipids extraction, subsequent esterification/transesterification Biofuel Micro 3–4 Luxembourg & France WOW 2018–2021 https://www.cell-vation.com/wow-project 
Energy, nutrients Anaerobic biofilter for municipal wastewater treatment Biogas Meso, macro Karmiel, Israel SMART-Plant 2018–2020 http://www.smart-plant.eu/ 
UASB for municipal wastewater Biogas Meso Sweden Pioneer-STP 2016–2019 https://www.kt.dtu.dk/english/research/prosys/projects/pioneer-stp 
Vacuum toilets and collection, AD, Fixed bed reactor, heat exchange, district heating Biogas, fertiliser, thermal energy Meso 7–8 Hamburg, Germany Hamburg Water Cycle, Jenfelder Au 2011–2018 https://www.hamburgwatercycle.de/en/the-jenfelder-au-neighbourhood/the-hwc-in-the-jenfelder-au/ 
Energy Horizontal subsurface CW with electrodes; oxidation of the organic matter generates electricity Electricity Micro 4–5 Spain, UK, Turkey URBAN GreenUP 2017–2022 https://www.urbangreenup.eu/ 
Energy, salts Microbial desalination combined with membrane treatment Freshwater, treated wastewater Micro,meso Spain, Chile, Tunisia MIDES 2016–2020 http://midesh2020.eu/ 
Nutrients, lipids, cellulose Microbial conversion of nutrients to high-value compounds in a biorefinery approach Ectoine, PHA, biogas, cellulose, construction materials Meso,macro Spain DEEP PURPLE 2019–2023 https://deep-purple.eu/ 
Recoverable resourceTechnologies appliedProductsScaleTRLRegionProjectProject periodReference
Reclaimed water, energy and nutrients Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) + constructed wetlands + UV disinfection Fertigation water; domestic non-potable water Micro, meso Lesvos Island, Greece HYDROUSA 2018–2022 https://www.hydrousa.org/ 
Combination with shred kitchen waste, liquid-solid separation, green walls, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), UV hygienisation Fertigation water; biogas, fertiliser, domestic non-potable water Micro Austria, Spain HOUSEFUL 2018–2022 https://houseful.eu/ 
Hybrid constructed wetland, evapotranspirative willow system with zero discharge, algae-based technology Fertigation water, woodchips for heat production Micro, meso Slovenia GreenT (Slovenian Research Agency J2 − 8162 and Z2 − 6751) 2017–2020 http://www2.zf.uni-lj.si/si/component/content/article/32-raziskovanje-splosno/2489-zapiranje-snovnih-poti-pri-ciscenju-komunalnih-odpadnih-voda-z-zelenimi-tehnologijami-j2-8162 
Nutrients Adsorption columns and planted filters Nutrients for irrigation water Micro 3–4 Barcelona and Almería, Spain INCOVER 2019–2021 https://incover-project.eu/technologies/nutrient-recovery 
Organic carbon (carbo-hydrates) Two-stage anaerobic-photosynthetic High Rate Algae Pond system Biopolymers Micro Chiclana de la Frontera and Almería, Spain INCOVER 2019–2021 https://incover-project.eu/technologies 
Two sequencing batch reactors (SBR): one for heterotrophic bacterial growth and the other for growth of autotrophic nitrifiers Biopolymers (PHA) and P-rich sludge Macro Manresa, Spain SMART-Plant 2016–2019 http://www.smart-plant.eu/ 
Mixed microbial cultures, activated sludge at WWTP, bioprocess facilitating feast and famine conditions, biomass is fed with VFA-rich liquors, pure acetic and propionic acids Biopolymers (PHA) Meso 6–7 Netherlands Phario 2015–2019 http://phario.eu/ 
Alginate extraction from granular excess sludge from 3 municipal Nereda®-plants and one industrial one Alginates Macro WWTP Epe, Dinxperlo, Vroomshoop, Netherlands National Alginate Research Programme 2013–2019 https://www.royalhaskoningdhv.com/en-gb/news-room/news/water-authorities-working-hard-to-achieve-circular-economy/7123 
Alginate extraction from Nereda®-granular excess sludge Kaumera Nereda® Gum (formerly: Neoalginate) Macro 7–8 WWTP Zuthpen, Netherlands KAUMERA 2016–2018 https://kaumera.com/english/ 
Lipids Two-stage aerobic/anaerobic reactor, M. parvicella bacterium accumulates FOG (fat, oil, grease), lipids extraction, subsequent esterification/transesterification Biofuel Micro 3–4 Luxembourg & France WOW 2018–2021 https://www.cell-vation.com/wow-project 
Energy, nutrients Anaerobic biofilter for municipal wastewater treatment Biogas Meso, macro Karmiel, Israel SMART-Plant 2018–2020 http://www.smart-plant.eu/ 
UASB for municipal wastewater Biogas Meso Sweden Pioneer-STP 2016–2019 https://www.kt.dtu.dk/english/research/prosys/projects/pioneer-stp 
Vacuum toilets and collection, AD, Fixed bed reactor, heat exchange, district heating Biogas, fertiliser, thermal energy Meso 7–8 Hamburg, Germany Hamburg Water Cycle, Jenfelder Au 2011–2018 https://www.hamburgwatercycle.de/en/the-jenfelder-au-neighbourhood/the-hwc-in-the-jenfelder-au/ 
Energy Horizontal subsurface CW with electrodes; oxidation of the organic matter generates electricity Electricity Micro 4–5 Spain, UK, Turkey URBAN GreenUP 2017–2022 https://www.urbangreenup.eu/ 
Energy, salts Microbial desalination combined with membrane treatment Freshwater, treated wastewater Micro,meso Spain, Chile, Tunisia MIDES 2016–2020 http://midesh2020.eu/ 
Nutrients, lipids, cellulose Microbial conversion of nutrients to high-value compounds in a biorefinery approach Ectoine, PHA, biogas, cellulose, construction materials Meso,macro Spain DEEP PURPLE 2019–2023 https://deep-purple.eu/ 

DEEP PURPLE: Conversion of diluted mixed urban bio-wastes into sustainable materials and products in flexible purplephotobiorefineries. GreenT: Closure of material pathways in urban wastewater treatment with green technologies. HYDROUSA: Demonstration of water loops with innovative regenerative business models for the Mediterranean region. INCOVER: Innovative eco-technologies for resource recovery from wastewater. MIDES: Microbial desalination for low energy drinking water. Pioneer STP: The potential of innovative technologies to improve sustainability of sewage treatment plants. Run4Life: Large-scale nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater. SMART plant: Scale-up of low-carbon footprint material recovery techniques in existing wastewater treatment PLANTs. WOW: Wider business opportunities for raw materials from wastewater.

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