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Table 3

Overview of resources that can be recovered from different MSW streams, recovery technologies applied, recovered products, scale, TRL, region and project information

Secondary resource streamRecoverable resourceTechnologies appliedProductsScaleTRLRegionProjectProject periodReference
Biodegradable fraction of MSW Energy, nutrients Separate collection at city level, centralised AD (digestion) and composting Biogas, electricity and thermal heat, compost Macro Ljubljana, Slovenia Centralised AT and composting at city level, e.g., RCERO 2007–2015 http://www.rcero-ljubljana.eu/upload/dokumenti/rcero_ljubljana_brusura_ang.pdf 
Separate collection at city level, centralised AD (digestion) Methane for transportation, digestate (fertiliser) Macro Reykjavik, Iceland Centralised methane recovery at city level CIRCLENERGY 2017–2018 https://www.carbonrecycling.is/circlenergy 
Nutrients, lipids, cellulose Microbial conversion of nutrients to high-value compounds in a biorefinery approach Ectoine, PHA, biogas, cellulose, construction materials Meso-, macro Spain DEEP PURPLE 2019–2023 https://deep-purple.eu/ 
Organic carbon, energy, nutrients Closed vessel composting system with integrated plant biofilter Biomass, odour removal, oxygen Micro, meso Austria, Greece, Spain HYDROUSA, HOUSEFUL 2018–2022 https://www.alchemia-nova.net/projects/houseful/ 
Food waste and primary sludge Carbohydrates Acetogenesis (anaerobic digestion) VFAs Micro 3–4 Sweden CarbonNextGen 2018–2020 https://resource-sip.se/projects/nasta-generations-koldioxidneutrala-avloppsreningsverk-carbonnextgen/ 
Food and garden waste + construction and demolition waste (CDW) Green waste compost + crushed CDW material Green waste compost and CDW are mixed 50:50 Improved soil-like substrate Micro, meso Scotland The James Hutton Institute 2019–2021 https://www.hutton.ac.uk/staff/luke-beesley 
Secondary resource streamRecoverable resourceTechnologies appliedProductsScaleTRLRegionProjectProject periodReference
Biodegradable fraction of MSW Energy, nutrients Separate collection at city level, centralised AD (digestion) and composting Biogas, electricity and thermal heat, compost Macro Ljubljana, Slovenia Centralised AT and composting at city level, e.g., RCERO 2007–2015 http://www.rcero-ljubljana.eu/upload/dokumenti/rcero_ljubljana_brusura_ang.pdf 
Separate collection at city level, centralised AD (digestion) Methane for transportation, digestate (fertiliser) Macro Reykjavik, Iceland Centralised methane recovery at city level CIRCLENERGY 2017–2018 https://www.carbonrecycling.is/circlenergy 
Nutrients, lipids, cellulose Microbial conversion of nutrients to high-value compounds in a biorefinery approach Ectoine, PHA, biogas, cellulose, construction materials Meso-, macro Spain DEEP PURPLE 2019–2023 https://deep-purple.eu/ 
Organic carbon, energy, nutrients Closed vessel composting system with integrated plant biofilter Biomass, odour removal, oxygen Micro, meso Austria, Greece, Spain HYDROUSA, HOUSEFUL 2018–2022 https://www.alchemia-nova.net/projects/houseful/ 
Food waste and primary sludge Carbohydrates Acetogenesis (anaerobic digestion) VFAs Micro 3–4 Sweden CarbonNextGen 2018–2020 https://resource-sip.se/projects/nasta-generations-koldioxidneutrala-avloppsreningsverk-carbonnextgen/ 
Food and garden waste + construction and demolition waste (CDW) Green waste compost + crushed CDW material Green waste compost and CDW are mixed 50:50 Improved soil-like substrate Micro, meso Scotland The James Hutton Institute 2019–2021 https://www.hutton.ac.uk/staff/luke-beesley 

DEEP Purple: Conversion of diluted mixed urban bio-wastes into sustainable materials and products in flexible purplephotobiorefineries. HOUSEFUL: Innovative circular solutions and services for new business opportunities in the EU housing sector. HYDROUSA: Demonstration of water loops with innovative regenerative business models for the Mediterranean region. RCERO: Regional Waste Management Center of Ljubliana.

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