Skip to Main Content
Table 4

Overview of resources that can be recovered from different gaseous effluent streams found in cities, recovery technologies applied, recovered products, scale, TRL, region and project

Secondary resource streamRecoverable resourceTechnologies appliedProductsScaleTRLRegionProjectProject periodReference
Vehicle exhaust gases, road traffic CO2-C, clean air Glass tubular photobioreactors using algae Combustible biomass, oxygen Micro Geneva, Switzerland Culture Urbaine 2014 https://urbannext.net/culture-urbaine/ 
Outdoor air in urban spaces Clean air Plant-based green wall Filtered air Micro EU Green INSTRUCT 2016–2020 https://www.greeninstruct.eu/ 
Large-scale green wall facade Filtered air Micro Austria Grünwand 2009–2013 https://gruenwand.com/ 
CO2-C, clean air Mobile pods with tubular algae PBR structures Oxygen, canopy area Micro Hungary Chlorella Oxygen Pavilion 2012 Miklosi (2013)  
Curtain style vertically positioned algae reactor Bioplastics, oxygen Micro United Kingdom photo.Synthetica, EcoLogicStudio Since 2018 https://www.photosynthetica.co.uk/ 
Open algae tanks Animal feed (protein), filtered air Meso Bangkok, Thailand EnerGaia Since 2009 https://energaia.com/ 
Bio-wall type moss system Filtered air Micro Germany CityTree Since 2015 https://greencitysolutions.de/en/ 
CO2-C, energy, clean air Flat-panel photobioreactors (PBRs) using algae Heat, biogas, oxygen Micro Hamburg, Germany Building with Bio-Intelligent Quotient (BIQ) 2011–2013 https://www.buildup.eu/en/practices/cases/biq-house-first-algae-powered-building-world 
Wastewater treatment by open raceway algae ponds, anaerobic digestion, digestate dewatering, lipid extraction, biogas upgrading Biofuel, biofertiliser, biomethane Macro El Torno Chiclana, Spain All-Gas 2011–2016 http://www.all-gas.eu/en/ 
Industrial flue gas CO2-C, clean air Vertically positioned plastic discs generating algae biofilms; continuous harvesting Dry biomass, oxygen Meso Spain ALGADISK 2012–2014 https://algen.eu/node/153 
CO2-C, energy, clean air Photobioreactor and photofermentation, anaerobic digestion of cyanobacteria residue Bioplastic (polyhydroxybutric acid, PHB), biogas, nutrients for bacteria cultivation, fertiliser Meso 6–7 Austria CO2USE 2012–2015 https://www.energy-innovation-austria.at/article/co2use-2/?lang=en 
Indoor air Clean air Active hydroculture plant-based air treatment chambers Filtered and humidified air Micro Denmark, UK, Switzerland, Spain RECO2ST 2018–2022 https://reco2st.eu/ 
Indoor air (households and other buildings), or flue gas from biogas CHP CO2-C, energy, clean air Wall décor type algae biofilms; combination with biogas Combined Heat Power Filtered air, biogas, electricity, heat Micro Germany SOLAGA Since 2015 https://www.solaga.de 
Secondary resource streamRecoverable resourceTechnologies appliedProductsScaleTRLRegionProjectProject periodReference
Vehicle exhaust gases, road traffic CO2-C, clean air Glass tubular photobioreactors using algae Combustible biomass, oxygen Micro Geneva, Switzerland Culture Urbaine 2014 https://urbannext.net/culture-urbaine/ 
Outdoor air in urban spaces Clean air Plant-based green wall Filtered air Micro EU Green INSTRUCT 2016–2020 https://www.greeninstruct.eu/ 
Large-scale green wall facade Filtered air Micro Austria Grünwand 2009–2013 https://gruenwand.com/ 
CO2-C, clean air Mobile pods with tubular algae PBR structures Oxygen, canopy area Micro Hungary Chlorella Oxygen Pavilion 2012 Miklosi (2013)  
Curtain style vertically positioned algae reactor Bioplastics, oxygen Micro United Kingdom photo.Synthetica, EcoLogicStudio Since 2018 https://www.photosynthetica.co.uk/ 
Open algae tanks Animal feed (protein), filtered air Meso Bangkok, Thailand EnerGaia Since 2009 https://energaia.com/ 
Bio-wall type moss system Filtered air Micro Germany CityTree Since 2015 https://greencitysolutions.de/en/ 
CO2-C, energy, clean air Flat-panel photobioreactors (PBRs) using algae Heat, biogas, oxygen Micro Hamburg, Germany Building with Bio-Intelligent Quotient (BIQ) 2011–2013 https://www.buildup.eu/en/practices/cases/biq-house-first-algae-powered-building-world 
Wastewater treatment by open raceway algae ponds, anaerobic digestion, digestate dewatering, lipid extraction, biogas upgrading Biofuel, biofertiliser, biomethane Macro El Torno Chiclana, Spain All-Gas 2011–2016 http://www.all-gas.eu/en/ 
Industrial flue gas CO2-C, clean air Vertically positioned plastic discs generating algae biofilms; continuous harvesting Dry biomass, oxygen Meso Spain ALGADISK 2012–2014 https://algen.eu/node/153 
CO2-C, energy, clean air Photobioreactor and photofermentation, anaerobic digestion of cyanobacteria residue Bioplastic (polyhydroxybutric acid, PHB), biogas, nutrients for bacteria cultivation, fertiliser Meso 6–7 Austria CO2USE 2012–2015 https://www.energy-innovation-austria.at/article/co2use-2/?lang=en 
Indoor air Clean air Active hydroculture plant-based air treatment chambers Filtered and humidified air Micro Denmark, UK, Switzerland, Spain RECO2ST 2018–2022 https://reco2st.eu/ 
Indoor air (households and other buildings), or flue gas from biogas CHP CO2-C, energy, clean air Wall décor type algae biofilms; combination with biogas Combined Heat Power Filtered air, biogas, electricity, heat Micro Germany SOLAGA Since 2015 https://www.solaga.de 

ALGADISK: Novel algae-based solution for CO2 capture and biomass production. Green INSTRUCT: Green INtegrated STRUCTural elements for retrofitting and new construction of buildings. ReCO2ST: Residential retrofit assessment platform and demonstrations for near zero energy and CO2 emissions with optimum cost, health, comfort and environmental quality. SOLAGA: Living wall elements with algae.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal