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Table 2

Selected hydrologic models and modeling characteristics

ModelCoupling subsurface–surfaceCoupling techniqueSurface water schemeSaturated subsurface schemeUnsaturated subsurface schemeSolution
MIKE SHE – FC 2D DWA/SOFR 3D 1D R/GF/2LWB FDM 
PIHM First-order exchange FC 1D and 2D DWA 2D R 1D R SDFVM 
IGSM Continuity of pressure IC – 3D 1D R FEM 
GEOtop Continuity of pressure IC 2D KWA 3D R 3D R FVM 
HGS First-order exchange FC 2D DWA 3D R 3D R CVFEM 
PARFLOW Continuity of pressure IC 2D KWA 3D R 3D R CVFEM surface FDM subsurface 
GSFLOW Continuity of pressure IC PRMS model a KWA of single-direction, unsteady flow 3D groundwater (MODFLOW) 1D KWA/R FDM 
CATHY Boundary condition switching IC 1D DWA 3D R 3D R FDM surface FEM subsurface 
MODHMS First-order exchange FC 2D DWA 3D R 3D R FDM 
InHM First-order exchange FC 2D DWA 3D R 3D R FVM and FEM 
WASH123D Continuity of pressure/first-order exchange IC 2D of DYWA/KWA/DWA 3D R 3D R SLM/ FEM/ 
ModelCoupling subsurface–surfaceCoupling techniqueSurface water schemeSaturated subsurface schemeUnsaturated subsurface schemeSolution
MIKE SHE – FC 2D DWA/SOFR 3D 1D R/GF/2LWB FDM 
PIHM First-order exchange FC 1D and 2D DWA 2D R 1D R SDFVM 
IGSM Continuity of pressure IC – 3D 1D R FEM 
GEOtop Continuity of pressure IC 2D KWA 3D R 3D R FVM 
HGS First-order exchange FC 2D DWA 3D R 3D R CVFEM 
PARFLOW Continuity of pressure IC 2D KWA 3D R 3D R CVFEM surface FDM subsurface 
GSFLOW Continuity of pressure IC PRMS model a KWA of single-direction, unsteady flow 3D groundwater (MODFLOW) 1D KWA/R FDM 
CATHY Boundary condition switching IC 1D DWA 3D R 3D R FDM surface FEM subsurface 
MODHMS First-order exchange FC 2D DWA 3D R 3D R FDM 
InHM First-order exchange FC 2D DWA 3D R 3D R FVM and FEM 
WASH123D Continuity of pressure/first-order exchange IC 2D of DYWA/KWA/DWA 3D R 3D R SLM/ FEM/ 

Abbreviations: SL, semi-Lagrangian method; FEM, finite element method; DWA, diffusive wave approximation; SOFR, simplified overland flow routing; KWA, kinematic wave approximation; DYWA, dynamic wave approximation; IC, iterative coupling; FC, fully coupling; LS, loosely coupling; CVFEM, control-volume finite element method; R, Richards' equation; GF, gravity flow; 2LWB, two-layer water balance; FDM, finite difference method; SDFVM, semi-discrete finite volume method; and PRMS, precipitation-runoff modeling system.

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