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Table 2

Seasonally variations in physicochemical characteristics (Mean ± standard error, n = 3) of raw and treated waters of Kafr El-Shinawy drinking-water treatment plant – Damietta

Water characteristicWater treatmentSeason
WinterSpringSummerAutumn
Temperature (°C) Raw water 17.9 ± 2.48b 25.5 ± 2.54cd 31.0 ± 2.44g 26.0 ± 2.69e 
Treated water 16.1 ± 1.59a 25.0 ± 2.58c 29.4 ± 1.79f 25.1 ± 2.51c 
Turbidity (NTU) Raw water 4.30 ± 0.38d 6.01 ± 0.57f 6.00 ± 0.57f 5.04 ± 0.50e 
Treated water 1.27 ± 0.12a 1.50 ± 0.15b 1.86 ± 0.18c 1.34 ± 0.13a 
pH Raw water 7.76 ± 0.91d 8.12 ± 0.81g 8.51 ± 0.75h 7.90 ± 0.79ef 
Treated water 7.34 ± 0.72a 7.58 ± 0.75bc 7.86 ± 0.78e 7.53 ± 0.74b 
Conductivity (dS m−1Raw water 540.0 ± 35.0a 600.7 ± 60.1e 750.0 ± 73.3f 550.3 ± 34.7b 
Treated water 550.0 ± 51.1b 590.3 ± 58.1d 755.0 ± 73.9g 554.0 ± 54.5bc 
Total alkalinity (mg L−1Raw water 147.0 ± 13.8c 162.0 ± 16.0e 174.0 ± 17.3g 147.3 ± 14.4bc 
Treated water 136.1 ± 13.1a 151.3 ± 14.8d 164.7 ± 16.3ef 140.3 ± 14.0b 
DO (mg L−1Raw water 6.83 ± 0.61e 6.09 ± 0.58b 5.10 ± 0.50a 6.20 ± 0.59c 
Treated water 7.10 ± 0.71g 7.57 ± 0.74h 6.67 ± 0.67d 7.00 ± 0.64f 
BOD (mg L−1Raw water 2.71 ± 0.27e 2.99 ± 0.29f 3.81 ± 0.32h 3.50 ± 0.35g 
Treated water 1.51 ± 0.15a 2.00 ± 0.18c 2.23 ± 0.22d 1.71 ± 0.17b 
Silica (mg L−1Raw water 2.51 ± 0.52c 3.10 ± 0.30d 3.60 ± 0.31f 2.23 ± 0.22a 
Treated water 4.00 ± 0.34h 3.30 ± 0.32e 3.67 ± 0.35fg 2.33 ± 0.22b 
Ammonia (mg L−1Raw water 0.42 ± 0.038f 0.35 ± 0.034d 0.28 ± 0.021c 0.39 ± 0.038e 
Treated water 0.02 ± 0.001ab 0.01 ± 0.001a 0.01 ± 0.001a 0.01 ± 0.001a 
Nitrite (mg L−1Raw water 0.20 ± 0.015g 0.09 ± 0.008de 0.08 ± 0.007d 0.12 ± 0.011f 
Treated water 0.05 ± 0.003c 0.01 ± 0.002a 0.01 ± 0.002a 0.03 ± 0.004b 
Nitrate (mg L−1Raw water 0.31 ± 0.031h 0.27 ± 0.026g 0.24 ± 0.023e 0.28 ± 0.028f 
Treated water 0.20 ± 0.003d 0.15 ± 0.002c 0.09 ± 0.002ab 0.08 ± 0.002a 
Total-N (mg L−1Raw water 2.72 ± 0.270d 2.74 ± 0.272de 2.91 ± 0.223g 2.76 ± 0.275def 
Treated water 0.19 ± 0.009c 0.11 ± 0.003a 0.20 ± 0.004c 0.15 ± 0.004b 
Ortho-P (mg L−1Raw water 0.021 ± 0.005cd 0.020 ± 0.002c 0.020 ± 0.002c 0.020 ± 0.002c 
Treated water 0.006 ± 0.0001ab 0.005 ± 0.0001a 0.006 ± 0.0001ab 0.006 ± 0.0001ab 
Total-P (mg L−1Raw water 1.70 ± 0.13d 1.82 ± 0.178ef 1.99 ± 0.21g 1.80 ± 0.22e 
Treated water 0.50 ± 0.056b 0.50 ± 0.055b 0.52 ± 0.057bc 0.45 ± 0.050a 
Water characteristicWater treatmentSeason
WinterSpringSummerAutumn
Temperature (°C) Raw water 17.9 ± 2.48b 25.5 ± 2.54cd 31.0 ± 2.44g 26.0 ± 2.69e 
Treated water 16.1 ± 1.59a 25.0 ± 2.58c 29.4 ± 1.79f 25.1 ± 2.51c 
Turbidity (NTU) Raw water 4.30 ± 0.38d 6.01 ± 0.57f 6.00 ± 0.57f 5.04 ± 0.50e 
Treated water 1.27 ± 0.12a 1.50 ± 0.15b 1.86 ± 0.18c 1.34 ± 0.13a 
pH Raw water 7.76 ± 0.91d 8.12 ± 0.81g 8.51 ± 0.75h 7.90 ± 0.79ef 
Treated water 7.34 ± 0.72a 7.58 ± 0.75bc 7.86 ± 0.78e 7.53 ± 0.74b 
Conductivity (dS m−1Raw water 540.0 ± 35.0a 600.7 ± 60.1e 750.0 ± 73.3f 550.3 ± 34.7b 
Treated water 550.0 ± 51.1b 590.3 ± 58.1d 755.0 ± 73.9g 554.0 ± 54.5bc 
Total alkalinity (mg L−1Raw water 147.0 ± 13.8c 162.0 ± 16.0e 174.0 ± 17.3g 147.3 ± 14.4bc 
Treated water 136.1 ± 13.1a 151.3 ± 14.8d 164.7 ± 16.3ef 140.3 ± 14.0b 
DO (mg L−1Raw water 6.83 ± 0.61e 6.09 ± 0.58b 5.10 ± 0.50a 6.20 ± 0.59c 
Treated water 7.10 ± 0.71g 7.57 ± 0.74h 6.67 ± 0.67d 7.00 ± 0.64f 
BOD (mg L−1Raw water 2.71 ± 0.27e 2.99 ± 0.29f 3.81 ± 0.32h 3.50 ± 0.35g 
Treated water 1.51 ± 0.15a 2.00 ± 0.18c 2.23 ± 0.22d 1.71 ± 0.17b 
Silica (mg L−1Raw water 2.51 ± 0.52c 3.10 ± 0.30d 3.60 ± 0.31f 2.23 ± 0.22a 
Treated water 4.00 ± 0.34h 3.30 ± 0.32e 3.67 ± 0.35fg 2.33 ± 0.22b 
Ammonia (mg L−1Raw water 0.42 ± 0.038f 0.35 ± 0.034d 0.28 ± 0.021c 0.39 ± 0.038e 
Treated water 0.02 ± 0.001ab 0.01 ± 0.001a 0.01 ± 0.001a 0.01 ± 0.001a 
Nitrite (mg L−1Raw water 0.20 ± 0.015g 0.09 ± 0.008de 0.08 ± 0.007d 0.12 ± 0.011f 
Treated water 0.05 ± 0.003c 0.01 ± 0.002a 0.01 ± 0.002a 0.03 ± 0.004b 
Nitrate (mg L−1Raw water 0.31 ± 0.031h 0.27 ± 0.026g 0.24 ± 0.023e 0.28 ± 0.028f 
Treated water 0.20 ± 0.003d 0.15 ± 0.002c 0.09 ± 0.002ab 0.08 ± 0.002a 
Total-N (mg L−1Raw water 2.72 ± 0.270d 2.74 ± 0.272de 2.91 ± 0.223g 2.76 ± 0.275def 
Treated water 0.19 ± 0.009c 0.11 ± 0.003a 0.20 ± 0.004c 0.15 ± 0.004b 
Ortho-P (mg L−1Raw water 0.021 ± 0.005cd 0.020 ± 0.002c 0.020 ± 0.002c 0.020 ± 0.002c 
Treated water 0.006 ± 0.0001ab 0.005 ± 0.0001a 0.006 ± 0.0001ab 0.006 ± 0.0001ab 
Total-P (mg L−1Raw water 1.70 ± 0.13d 1.82 ± 0.178ef 1.99 ± 0.21g 1.80 ± 0.22e 
Treated water 0.50 ± 0.056b 0.50 ± 0.055b 0.52 ± 0.057bc 0.45 ± 0.050a 

Values with different letters ‘a, b, c, d, e, f, …’ are significantly different at P < 0.05.

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