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Table 4

Seasonally variations in concentrations of some heavy metals (Mean ± standard error, n = 3) in raw and treated waters, and phytoplankton cells Kafr El-Shinawy drinking-water treatment plant – Damietta

Heavy metalTreatmentSeason
WinterSpringSummerAutumn
  Water 
Fe (mg L−1Raw 0.097 ± 0.0048de 0.120 ± 0.0060g 0.100 ± 0.0050def 0.094 ± 0.0047d 
Treated 0.060 ± 0.0030c 0.051 ± 0.0026b 0.040 ± 0.0020a 0.060 ± 0.0030c 
Mn (mg L−1Raw 0.067 ± 0.0034g 0.057 ± 0.0029e 0.070 ± 0.0035h 0.061 ± 0.0031f 
Treated 0.014 ± 0.0007ab 0.020 ± 0.0010c 0.030 ± 0.0015d 0.010 ± 0.0005a 
Zn (mg L−1Raw 0.037 ± 0.0019g 0.032 ± 0.0016def 0.030 ± 0.0015de 0.029 ± 0.0015d 
Treated 0.020 ± 0.0010c 0.016 ± 0.0008ab 0.020 ± 0.0010c 0.015 ± 0.0008a 
Cu (mg L−1Raw 0.021 ± 0.0011d 0.025 ± 0.0025ef 0.024 ± 0.0012e 0.027 ± 0.0014g 
Treated 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.010 ± 0.0005c 0.005 ± 0.0003ab 
Cr (mg L−1Raw 0.005 ± 0.0003c 0.005 ± 0.0005c 0.005 ± 0.0003c 0.006 ± 0.0003d 
Treated 0.002 ± 0.0001a 0.002 ± 0.0001a 0.002 ± 0.0001a 0.003 ± 0.0002b 
Co (mg L−1Raw 0.020 ± 0.0010d 0.020 ± 0.0020d 0.024 ± 0.0012e 0.020 ± 0.0010d 
Treated 0.009 ± 0.0005ab 0.010 ± 0.0005c 0.010 ± 0.0005c 0.008 ± 0.0004a 
Cd (mg L−1Raw 0.040 ± 0.0020f 0.030 ± 0.0030e 0.026 ± 0.0013d 0.022 ± 0.0011c 
Treated 0.003 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002ab 0.004 ± 0.0002ab 0.003 ± 0.0002a 
Ni (mg L−1Raw 0.018 ± 0.0009e 0.021 ± 0.0011fg 0.022 ± 0.0022h 0.020 ± 0.0020f 
Treated 0.008 ± 0.0004c 0.007 ± 0.0004ab 0.006 ± 0.0003a 0.013 ± 0.0007d 
Pb (mg L−1Raw 0.021 ± 0.0011d 0.022 ± 0.0011de 0.022 ± 0.0022de 0.019 ± 0.0019c 
Treated 0.005 ± 0.0003ab 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002a 
  Phytoplankton 
Fe (mg L−1Raw 0.910 ± 0.0455d 1.020 ± 0.0510g 0.980 ± 0.0490f 0.950 ± 0.0475e 
Treated 0.320 ± 0.0160c 0.320 ± 0.0160c 0.250 ± 0.0125a 0.270 ± 0.0135ab 
Mn (mg L−1Raw 0.550 ± 0.0275e 0.450 ± 0.0225d 0.600 ± 0.0180g 0.560 ± 0.0280ef 
Treated 0.090 ± 0.0500b 0.090 ± 0.0045b 0.160 ± 0.0080c 0.076 ± 0.0038a 
Zn (mg L−1Raw 0.350 ± 0.0175g 0.300 ± 0.0150f 0.280 ± 0.0140e 0.280 ± 0.0140e 
Treated 0.050 ± 0.0045ab 0.045 ± 0.0023a 0.080 ± 0.0040d 0.070 ± 0.0035c 
Cu (mg L−1Raw 0.110 ± 0.0055e 0.160 ± 0.0160f 0.200 ± 0.0100g 0.230 ± 0.0115h 
Treated 0.020 ± 0.0025b 0.016 ± 0.0008a 0.050 ± 0.0025d 0.028 ± 0.0014c 
Cr (mg L−1Raw 0.025 ± 0.0013d 0.030 ± 0.0030e 0.033 ± 0.0017f 0.036 ± 0.0018g 
Treated 0.012 ± 0.0010ab 0.010 ± 0.0005a 0.010 ± 0.0005a 0.018 ± 0.0009c 
Co (mg L−1Raw 0.120 ± 0.0060c 0.120 ± 0.0120c 0.210 ± 0.0105c 0.180 ± 0.0090d 
Treated 0.050 ± 0.0006a 0.070 ± 0.0035b 0.070 ± 0.0035b 0.050 ± 0.0025a 
Cd (mg L−1Raw 0.250 ± 0.0125f 0.200 ± 0.0200d 0.220 ± 0.0110e 0.190 ± 0.0095c 
Treated 0.020 ± 0.0025a 0.020 ± 0.0010a 0.021 ± 0.0011ab 0.020 ± 0.0010a 
Ni (mg L−1Raw 0.090 ± 0.0045e 0.120 ± 0.0060f 0.150 ± 0.0150h 0.140 ± 0.0140g 
Treated 0.040 ± 0.0010bc 0.022 ± 0.0011a 0.039 ± 0.0020b 0.050 ± 0.0025d 
Pb (mg L−1Raw 0.180 ± 0.0090g 0.170 ± 0.0085f 0.160 ± 0.0320e 0.150 ± 0.0300d 
Treated 0.024 ± 0.0020bc 0.020 ± 0.0010a 0.023 ± 0.0012b 0.024 ± 0.0012bc 
Heavy metalTreatmentSeason
WinterSpringSummerAutumn
  Water 
Fe (mg L−1Raw 0.097 ± 0.0048de 0.120 ± 0.0060g 0.100 ± 0.0050def 0.094 ± 0.0047d 
Treated 0.060 ± 0.0030c 0.051 ± 0.0026b 0.040 ± 0.0020a 0.060 ± 0.0030c 
Mn (mg L−1Raw 0.067 ± 0.0034g 0.057 ± 0.0029e 0.070 ± 0.0035h 0.061 ± 0.0031f 
Treated 0.014 ± 0.0007ab 0.020 ± 0.0010c 0.030 ± 0.0015d 0.010 ± 0.0005a 
Zn (mg L−1Raw 0.037 ± 0.0019g 0.032 ± 0.0016def 0.030 ± 0.0015de 0.029 ± 0.0015d 
Treated 0.020 ± 0.0010c 0.016 ± 0.0008ab 0.020 ± 0.0010c 0.015 ± 0.0008a 
Cu (mg L−1Raw 0.021 ± 0.0011d 0.025 ± 0.0025ef 0.024 ± 0.0012e 0.027 ± 0.0014g 
Treated 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.010 ± 0.0005c 0.005 ± 0.0003ab 
Cr (mg L−1Raw 0.005 ± 0.0003c 0.005 ± 0.0005c 0.005 ± 0.0003c 0.006 ± 0.0003d 
Treated 0.002 ± 0.0001a 0.002 ± 0.0001a 0.002 ± 0.0001a 0.003 ± 0.0002b 
Co (mg L−1Raw 0.020 ± 0.0010d 0.020 ± 0.0020d 0.024 ± 0.0012e 0.020 ± 0.0010d 
Treated 0.009 ± 0.0005ab 0.010 ± 0.0005c 0.010 ± 0.0005c 0.008 ± 0.0004a 
Cd (mg L−1Raw 0.040 ± 0.0020f 0.030 ± 0.0030e 0.026 ± 0.0013d 0.022 ± 0.0011c 
Treated 0.003 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002ab 0.004 ± 0.0002ab 0.003 ± 0.0002a 
Ni (mg L−1Raw 0.018 ± 0.0009e 0.021 ± 0.0011fg 0.022 ± 0.0022h 0.020 ± 0.0020f 
Treated 0.008 ± 0.0004c 0.007 ± 0.0004ab 0.006 ± 0.0003a 0.013 ± 0.0007d 
Pb (mg L−1Raw 0.021 ± 0.0011d 0.022 ± 0.0011de 0.022 ± 0.0022de 0.019 ± 0.0019c 
Treated 0.005 ± 0.0003ab 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002a 0.004 ± 0.0002a 
  Phytoplankton 
Fe (mg L−1Raw 0.910 ± 0.0455d 1.020 ± 0.0510g 0.980 ± 0.0490f 0.950 ± 0.0475e 
Treated 0.320 ± 0.0160c 0.320 ± 0.0160c 0.250 ± 0.0125a 0.270 ± 0.0135ab 
Mn (mg L−1Raw 0.550 ± 0.0275e 0.450 ± 0.0225d 0.600 ± 0.0180g 0.560 ± 0.0280ef 
Treated 0.090 ± 0.0500b 0.090 ± 0.0045b 0.160 ± 0.0080c 0.076 ± 0.0038a 
Zn (mg L−1Raw 0.350 ± 0.0175g 0.300 ± 0.0150f 0.280 ± 0.0140e 0.280 ± 0.0140e 
Treated 0.050 ± 0.0045ab 0.045 ± 0.0023a 0.080 ± 0.0040d 0.070 ± 0.0035c 
Cu (mg L−1Raw 0.110 ± 0.0055e 0.160 ± 0.0160f 0.200 ± 0.0100g 0.230 ± 0.0115h 
Treated 0.020 ± 0.0025b 0.016 ± 0.0008a 0.050 ± 0.0025d 0.028 ± 0.0014c 
Cr (mg L−1Raw 0.025 ± 0.0013d 0.030 ± 0.0030e 0.033 ± 0.0017f 0.036 ± 0.0018g 
Treated 0.012 ± 0.0010ab 0.010 ± 0.0005a 0.010 ± 0.0005a 0.018 ± 0.0009c 
Co (mg L−1Raw 0.120 ± 0.0060c 0.120 ± 0.0120c 0.210 ± 0.0105c 0.180 ± 0.0090d 
Treated 0.050 ± 0.0006a 0.070 ± 0.0035b 0.070 ± 0.0035b 0.050 ± 0.0025a 
Cd (mg L−1Raw 0.250 ± 0.0125f 0.200 ± 0.0200d 0.220 ± 0.0110e 0.190 ± 0.0095c 
Treated 0.020 ± 0.0025a 0.020 ± 0.0010a 0.021 ± 0.0011ab 0.020 ± 0.0010a 
Ni (mg L−1Raw 0.090 ± 0.0045e 0.120 ± 0.0060f 0.150 ± 0.0150h 0.140 ± 0.0140g 
Treated 0.040 ± 0.0010bc 0.022 ± 0.0011a 0.039 ± 0.0020b 0.050 ± 0.0025d 
Pb (mg L−1Raw 0.180 ± 0.0090g 0.170 ± 0.0085f 0.160 ± 0.0320e 0.150 ± 0.0300d 
Treated 0.024 ± 0.0020bc 0.020 ± 0.0010a 0.023 ± 0.0012b 0.024 ± 0.0012bc 

Values with different letters ‘a, b, c, d, e, f, …’ are significantly different at P < 0.05.

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