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Table 1

Log10 removal/inactivation of viruses by different treatment processes

ProcessVirus/IndicatorRemoval/Inactivation (Log10)References
Primary treatment 
Grit chamber MS-2 phage 0.0–0.3 Prakashi & Chaudhuri (1982)  
Fine screen Enterovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus 0.1–0.2 Zhou et al. (2015)  
Secondary treatment 
Activated sludge Human adenovirus (AdV and AdV species F), enterovirus, and norovirus 0.7–2.9 Hewitt et al. (2011)  
Noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in sewerage systems Katayama et al. (2008)  
Trickling filter MS-2 phage 0.0–0.8 Prakashi & Chaudhuri (1982)  
MBR Noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in sewerage systems 3.4–6.8 Katayama et al. (2008)  
Enterovirus, norovirus genogroup II (NoV GGII), human adenovirus (HAdV) Simmons et al. (2011)  
Tertiary/advanced treatment 
Chemical coagulation-alum, iron salts Enterovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus 1.0–2.9 Zhou et al. (2015)  
Microfiltration Poliovirus, Coliphage f2 0.2–5.1 Madaeni et al. (1995) and Zheng & Liu (2006)  
Ultrafiltration MS-2 and PRD-1 phage >3.0 Jacangelo et al. (2005) and Lovins et al. (2002)  
Nanofiltration MS-2 and PRD-1 phage >5.4 Lovins et al. (2002)  
Reverse osmosis MS-2 >6.5 Adham et al. (1998)  
Disinfection 
Chlorination F-specific and somatic coliphage, enterovirus, adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and Hepatitis A 0.8–2.8 Francy et al. (2012)  
F + -specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage (MS-2) Tree Adams & Lees (2003)  
Ozonation F-specific and somatic coliphage, enterovirus, adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and Hepatitis A 0.2– >6.0 Francy et al. (2012)  
UV radiation Poliovirus, adenovirus, reovirus, MS-2, rotavirus, calicivirus, and Hepatitis A 1.43–6.0 Owens et al. (2000) and National Research Council (NRC) (2012)  
ProcessVirus/IndicatorRemoval/Inactivation (Log10)References
Primary treatment 
Grit chamber MS-2 phage 0.0–0.3 Prakashi & Chaudhuri (1982)  
Fine screen Enterovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus 0.1–0.2 Zhou et al. (2015)  
Secondary treatment 
Activated sludge Human adenovirus (AdV and AdV species F), enterovirus, and norovirus 0.7–2.9 Hewitt et al. (2011)  
Noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in sewerage systems Katayama et al. (2008)  
Trickling filter MS-2 phage 0.0–0.8 Prakashi & Chaudhuri (1982)  
MBR Noroviruses genotype 1 and genotype 2, enteroviruses, and adenoviruses in sewerage systems 3.4–6.8 Katayama et al. (2008)  
Enterovirus, norovirus genogroup II (NoV GGII), human adenovirus (HAdV) Simmons et al. (2011)  
Tertiary/advanced treatment 
Chemical coagulation-alum, iron salts Enterovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus 1.0–2.9 Zhou et al. (2015)  
Microfiltration Poliovirus, Coliphage f2 0.2–5.1 Madaeni et al. (1995) and Zheng & Liu (2006)  
Ultrafiltration MS-2 and PRD-1 phage >3.0 Jacangelo et al. (2005) and Lovins et al. (2002)  
Nanofiltration MS-2 and PRD-1 phage >5.4 Lovins et al. (2002)  
Reverse osmosis MS-2 >6.5 Adham et al. (1998)  
Disinfection 
Chlorination F-specific and somatic coliphage, enterovirus, adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and Hepatitis A 0.8–2.8 Francy et al. (2012)  
F + -specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage (MS-2) Tree Adams & Lees (2003)  
Ozonation F-specific and somatic coliphage, enterovirus, adenovirus, norovirus, rotavirus, and Hepatitis A 0.2– >6.0 Francy et al. (2012)  
UV radiation Poliovirus, adenovirus, reovirus, MS-2, rotavirus, calicivirus, and Hepatitis A 1.43–6.0 Owens et al. (2000) and National Research Council (NRC) (2012)  

Removal/inactivation is dependent on the virus. Adapted from Zhang et al. (2016).

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