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Table 3

Validation metrics of different spatial models

MethodMAE (mm)MARE (%)Bias (mm)
Space–time residual kriging/sum-metric variogram/3D distance (STRK SM 3D) 46.30 0.09 − 18.20 
Space–time residual kriging/Spartan variogram/3D distance (STRK SP 3D) 39.54 0.07 − 15.78 
Space–time residual kriging/sum-metric variogram/Euclidean distance (STRK SM E) 64.71 0.16 21.70 
Space–time residual kriging/Spartan variogram/Euclidean distance (STRK SP E) 62.23 0.15 18.80 
Space–time ordinary kriging/sum-metric/3D distance (STOK SM 3D) 71.24 0.17 − 26.51 
Space–time ordinary kriging/Spartan variogram/3D distance (STOK SP 3D) 68.15 0.17 − 24.34 
MethodMAE (mm)MARE (%)Bias (mm)
Space–time residual kriging/sum-metric variogram/3D distance (STRK SM 3D) 46.30 0.09 − 18.20 
Space–time residual kriging/Spartan variogram/3D distance (STRK SP 3D) 39.54 0.07 − 15.78 
Space–time residual kriging/sum-metric variogram/Euclidean distance (STRK SM E) 64.71 0.16 21.70 
Space–time residual kriging/Spartan variogram/Euclidean distance (STRK SP E) 62.23 0.15 18.80 
Space–time ordinary kriging/sum-metric/3D distance (STOK SM 3D) 71.24 0.17 − 26.51 
Space–time ordinary kriging/Spartan variogram/3D distance (STOK SP 3D) 68.15 0.17 − 24.34 

The metrics are obtained by comparing the models’ forecasts with the observed annual precipitation values for the hydrological year 2017/2018. The averages are calculated over all locations of the monitoring network.

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