Skip to Main Content
Table 1

The chemical properties of carwash wastewater after use of chemical processes for wastewater treatment

Treatment processInfluent characteristicsResultsYearReferences
Coagulation (alum) + Ozonation pH = 8.5, SS (mg/L) = 4,200, Turbidity (NTU) = 1,000, COD (mg/L) = 433, TN (mg/L) = 11.73, TP (mg/L) = 25 pH = 7.3, SS (mg/L) = 9, Turbidity (NTU) = 3.7, COD (mg/L) = 141, TN (mg/L) = 2.6, TP (mg/L) = 0.4 2016 Rodriguez Boluarte et al. (2016)  
Coagulation with 105 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O. pH = 6.96, Turbidity (NTU) = 275.1, COD (mg/L) = 220, DO (mg/L) = 2.55 pH = 4.13, Turbidity (NTU) = 18.8, COD (mg/L) = 180, DO (mg/L) = 6.78 2016 Al-Gheethi et al. (2016)  
Coagulation with 45 mg/L FeCl3 pH = 6.42, Turbidity (NTU) = 522, COD (mg/L) = 295, TDS (mg/L) = 259 pH = 4.5, COD (mg/L) = 100, TDS (mg/L) = 400 2017 Moazzem et al. (2018)  
Aeration + coagulation with Al2(SO4)3.16H2O + oxidation with H2O2 pH = 8.75, TS (mg/L) = 5,855, Turbidity (NTU) = 772, COD (mg/L) = 1,019, Oil (mg/L) = 83.7 pH = 7.5, TS (mg/L) = 538, Turbidity (NTU) = 43, COD (mg/L) = 70, Oil (mg/L) = 3.1 2010 Bhatti et al. (2011)  
Electrocoagulation Turbidity (NTU) = 128.7, COD (mg/L) = 155 COD reduction = 69%
Turbidity reduction = 96% 
2012 Chu et al. (2012)  
Electrocoagulation Turbidity (NTU) = 386, COD (mg/L) = 566 Turbidity (NTU) < 50, COD (mg/L)< 100 2015 El-Ashtoukhy et al. (2015)  
Electrocoagulation (Al electrode) pH = 8, Chloride (mg/L) = 150, COD (mg/L) = 560, Oil (mg/L) = 125 pH = 6, Chloride removal (%) = 33, COD removal (%) = 88, Oil removal (%) = 68 2017 Gönder et al. (2017)  
Electrocoagulation (Fe electrode) pH = 8, Chloride (mg/L) = 150, COD (mg/L) = 560, Oil (mg/L) = 125 pH = 8, Chloride removal (%) = 50, COD removal (%) = 88, Oil removal (%) = 90 2017 Gönder et al. (2017)  
Electro-oxidation (lead dioxide (PbO2) anode) pH = 6.4, Surfactant (mg/dm3) = 95.5, COD (mg/dm3) = 572, BOD (mg/dm3) = 178 pH = 8.9, Surfactant reduction after 10 h >95%, COD reduction after 10 h = 99% 2009 Panizza & Cerisola (2010b)  
Electro-oxidation (boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode) pH = 6.4, Surfactant (mg/dm3) = 95.5, COD (mg/dm3) = 572, BOD (mg/dm3) = 178, pH = 8.9, Surfactant reduction after 3 h = 100% %, COD reduction after 3 h = 100% 2009 Panizza & Cerisola (2010b)  
Electrocoagulation (Fe electrode + Electro-oxidation with BDD anode pH = 6.4, Surfactant (mg/dm3) = 95.5, COD (mg/dm3) = 572, BOD (mg/dm3) = 178 Surfactant after Electrocoagulation (mg/dm3) = 0, COD reduction after treatment (1.5 h) = 97% 2009 Panizza & Cerisola (2010a)  
Fenton + photo-Fenton Surfactant (mg/L) = 2.1
Oil and Grease (mg/L) = 112.3
COD (mg/L) = 201.4 
Surfactant (mg/L) = 0
Oil and Grease (mg/L) = 1.2
COD (mg/L) = 12.3 
2018 Magnago et al. (2018)  
Treatment processInfluent characteristicsResultsYearReferences
Coagulation (alum) + Ozonation pH = 8.5, SS (mg/L) = 4,200, Turbidity (NTU) = 1,000, COD (mg/L) = 433, TN (mg/L) = 11.73, TP (mg/L) = 25 pH = 7.3, SS (mg/L) = 9, Turbidity (NTU) = 3.7, COD (mg/L) = 141, TN (mg/L) = 2.6, TP (mg/L) = 0.4 2016 Rodriguez Boluarte et al. (2016)  
Coagulation with 105 mg/L FeSO4.7H2O. pH = 6.96, Turbidity (NTU) = 275.1, COD (mg/L) = 220, DO (mg/L) = 2.55 pH = 4.13, Turbidity (NTU) = 18.8, COD (mg/L) = 180, DO (mg/L) = 6.78 2016 Al-Gheethi et al. (2016)  
Coagulation with 45 mg/L FeCl3 pH = 6.42, Turbidity (NTU) = 522, COD (mg/L) = 295, TDS (mg/L) = 259 pH = 4.5, COD (mg/L) = 100, TDS (mg/L) = 400 2017 Moazzem et al. (2018)  
Aeration + coagulation with Al2(SO4)3.16H2O + oxidation with H2O2 pH = 8.75, TS (mg/L) = 5,855, Turbidity (NTU) = 772, COD (mg/L) = 1,019, Oil (mg/L) = 83.7 pH = 7.5, TS (mg/L) = 538, Turbidity (NTU) = 43, COD (mg/L) = 70, Oil (mg/L) = 3.1 2010 Bhatti et al. (2011)  
Electrocoagulation Turbidity (NTU) = 128.7, COD (mg/L) = 155 COD reduction = 69%
Turbidity reduction = 96% 
2012 Chu et al. (2012)  
Electrocoagulation Turbidity (NTU) = 386, COD (mg/L) = 566 Turbidity (NTU) < 50, COD (mg/L)< 100 2015 El-Ashtoukhy et al. (2015)  
Electrocoagulation (Al electrode) pH = 8, Chloride (mg/L) = 150, COD (mg/L) = 560, Oil (mg/L) = 125 pH = 6, Chloride removal (%) = 33, COD removal (%) = 88, Oil removal (%) = 68 2017 Gönder et al. (2017)  
Electrocoagulation (Fe electrode) pH = 8, Chloride (mg/L) = 150, COD (mg/L) = 560, Oil (mg/L) = 125 pH = 8, Chloride removal (%) = 50, COD removal (%) = 88, Oil removal (%) = 90 2017 Gönder et al. (2017)  
Electro-oxidation (lead dioxide (PbO2) anode) pH = 6.4, Surfactant (mg/dm3) = 95.5, COD (mg/dm3) = 572, BOD (mg/dm3) = 178 pH = 8.9, Surfactant reduction after 10 h >95%, COD reduction after 10 h = 99% 2009 Panizza & Cerisola (2010b)  
Electro-oxidation (boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode) pH = 6.4, Surfactant (mg/dm3) = 95.5, COD (mg/dm3) = 572, BOD (mg/dm3) = 178, pH = 8.9, Surfactant reduction after 3 h = 100% %, COD reduction after 3 h = 100% 2009 Panizza & Cerisola (2010b)  
Electrocoagulation (Fe electrode + Electro-oxidation with BDD anode pH = 6.4, Surfactant (mg/dm3) = 95.5, COD (mg/dm3) = 572, BOD (mg/dm3) = 178 Surfactant after Electrocoagulation (mg/dm3) = 0, COD reduction after treatment (1.5 h) = 97% 2009 Panizza & Cerisola (2010a)  
Fenton + photo-Fenton Surfactant (mg/L) = 2.1
Oil and Grease (mg/L) = 112.3
COD (mg/L) = 201.4 
Surfactant (mg/L) = 0
Oil and Grease (mg/L) = 1.2
COD (mg/L) = 12.3 
2018 Magnago et al. (2018)  
Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal