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Table 1

Percentage of households in selected provinces, by selected background variables, and by the risk level of fecal contamination based on the number of E. coli detected in drinking water

Background variablesContamination at the point of collection % (95% CI)
Contamination at the point of consumption % (95% CI)
Contaminated
(≥1 E. coli per 100 mL)
Very high risk
(>100 E. coli per 100 mL)a
NContaminated
(≥1 E. coli per 100 mL)
Very high risk
(>100 E. coli per 100 mL)a
N
Total (10 provinces) 58.2 (52.7, 63.6) 7.0 (5.0, 9.7) 816 77.0 (72.6, 80.8) 9.6 (7.4, 12.5) 896 
Residence       
Urban 45.5 (36.4, 54.9) 4.1 (1.9, 8.7) 237 67.1 (59.0, 74.3) 6.5 (3.7, 11.1) 268 
Rural and Kuchi 67.0 (60.8, 72.8) 9.0 (6.3, 12.8) 579 84.2 (80.1, 87.6) 11.9 (8.9, 15.8) 628 
Type of drinking water source       
Piped 38.9 (27.9, 51.2) 1.1 (0.2, 5.6) 151 61.7 (52.4, 70.2) 5.2 (2.5, 10.5) 173 
Boreholes 49.2 (40.7, 57.8) 3.3 (1.4, 7.8) 299 74.6 (66.7, 81.2) 5.7 (3.1, 10.0) 311 
Protected wells and springs 66.5 (51.0, 79.1) 3.1 (0.8, 11.6) 85 86.0 (77.3, 91.7) 9.6 (4.0, 21.5) 88 
Unprotected wells and springs 78.7 (69.4, 85.8) 10.6 (6.0, 18.0) 160 85.0 (77.0, 90.6) 12.3 (7.1, 20.5) 176 
Surface water 98.2 (92.7, 99.6) 40.4 (26.1, 56.5) 89 100.0 36.4 (24.5, 50.2) 106 
Other 86.7 (66.2, 95.6) 10.9 (3.2, 30.9) 29 90.0 (72.7, 96.8) 9.1 (2.8, 25.8) 39 
Drinking water source       
Unimproved 84.2 (77.8, 89.0) 19.2 (13.4, 26.8) 271 89.0 (83.5, 92.8) 19.6 (14.3, 26.3) 308 
Improved 48.9 (42.5, 55.4) 2.5 (1.3, 5.0) 542 72.5 (67.1, 77.3) 5.8 (3.8, 8.8) 585 
Sanitation facility       
Unimproved 71.7 (64.3, 78.1) 6.5 (3.9, 10.4) 347 87.9 (83.4, 91.3) 11.6 (8.2, 16.2) 382 
Improved 51.3 (44.7, 57.9) 7.3 (4.8, 11.1) 469 71.3 (65.6, 76.5) 8.6 (5.9, 12.4) 514 
Wealth quintiles       
Poorest 66.8 (55.4, 76.5) 16.1 (8.9, 27.5) 114 89.1 (79.9, 94.4) 17.7 (10.8, 27.6) 137 
Poor 70.6 (61.7, 78.2) 11.9 (6.9, 19.9) 204 86.3 (80.3, 90.7) 12.3 (7.7, 19.1) 222 
Middle 66.8 (55.5, 76.3) 6.7 (3.2, 13.8) 170 80.8 (72.4, 87.0) 10.9 (6.5, 17.7) 177 
Rich 66.1 (54.6, 76.1) 4.8 (2.2, 10.4) 133 74.9 (64.7, 83.0) 7.2 (3.7, 13.5) 141 
Richest 41.3 (32.1, 51.1) 2.6 (0.8, 8.1) 195 67.6 (59.0, 75.1) 6.2 (3.3, 11.2) 219 
Background variablesContamination at the point of collection % (95% CI)
Contamination at the point of consumption % (95% CI)
Contaminated
(≥1 E. coli per 100 mL)
Very high risk
(>100 E. coli per 100 mL)a
NContaminated
(≥1 E. coli per 100 mL)
Very high risk
(>100 E. coli per 100 mL)a
N
Total (10 provinces) 58.2 (52.7, 63.6) 7.0 (5.0, 9.7) 816 77.0 (72.6, 80.8) 9.6 (7.4, 12.5) 896 
Residence       
Urban 45.5 (36.4, 54.9) 4.1 (1.9, 8.7) 237 67.1 (59.0, 74.3) 6.5 (3.7, 11.1) 268 
Rural and Kuchi 67.0 (60.8, 72.8) 9.0 (6.3, 12.8) 579 84.2 (80.1, 87.6) 11.9 (8.9, 15.8) 628 
Type of drinking water source       
Piped 38.9 (27.9, 51.2) 1.1 (0.2, 5.6) 151 61.7 (52.4, 70.2) 5.2 (2.5, 10.5) 173 
Boreholes 49.2 (40.7, 57.8) 3.3 (1.4, 7.8) 299 74.6 (66.7, 81.2) 5.7 (3.1, 10.0) 311 
Protected wells and springs 66.5 (51.0, 79.1) 3.1 (0.8, 11.6) 85 86.0 (77.3, 91.7) 9.6 (4.0, 21.5) 88 
Unprotected wells and springs 78.7 (69.4, 85.8) 10.6 (6.0, 18.0) 160 85.0 (77.0, 90.6) 12.3 (7.1, 20.5) 176 
Surface water 98.2 (92.7, 99.6) 40.4 (26.1, 56.5) 89 100.0 36.4 (24.5, 50.2) 106 
Other 86.7 (66.2, 95.6) 10.9 (3.2, 30.9) 29 90.0 (72.7, 96.8) 9.1 (2.8, 25.8) 39 
Drinking water source       
Unimproved 84.2 (77.8, 89.0) 19.2 (13.4, 26.8) 271 89.0 (83.5, 92.8) 19.6 (14.3, 26.3) 308 
Improved 48.9 (42.5, 55.4) 2.5 (1.3, 5.0) 542 72.5 (67.1, 77.3) 5.8 (3.8, 8.8) 585 
Sanitation facility       
Unimproved 71.7 (64.3, 78.1) 6.5 (3.9, 10.4) 347 87.9 (83.4, 91.3) 11.6 (8.2, 16.2) 382 
Improved 51.3 (44.7, 57.9) 7.3 (4.8, 11.1) 469 71.3 (65.6, 76.5) 8.6 (5.9, 12.4) 514 
Wealth quintiles       
Poorest 66.8 (55.4, 76.5) 16.1 (8.9, 27.5) 114 89.1 (79.9, 94.4) 17.7 (10.8, 27.6) 137 
Poor 70.6 (61.7, 78.2) 11.9 (6.9, 19.9) 204 86.3 (80.3, 90.7) 12.3 (7.7, 19.1) 222 
Middle 66.8 (55.5, 76.3) 6.7 (3.2, 13.8) 170 80.8 (72.4, 87.0) 10.9 (6.5, 17.7) 177 
Rich 66.1 (54.6, 76.1) 4.8 (2.2, 10.4) 133 74.9 (64.7, 83.0) 7.2 (3.7, 13.5) 141 
Richest 41.3 (32.1, 51.1) 2.6 (0.8, 8.1) 195 67.6 (59.0, 75.1) 6.2 (3.3, 11.2) 219 

aSecond column (very high risk (>100 E. coli per 100 mL)) in Table 1 is subset of the first column (contaminated (≥1 E. coli per 100 mL)).

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