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Table 1.

Summary of interpretative scheme.

Rationale for differentiationDistance-to-target
 Definition Distance to WFD goal of ‘good status’    
 Degree 
  • Far

  • Close

 
   
Type of instrument (Hood, 1986; Vedung, 2007) NodalityAuthorityTreasureOrganisation
 Resource Information Legal authority Money Physical/human resources 
 Degree of coercion Low High Medium Varying 
 Definition 
  • Knowledge

  • Advice

  • Persuasion

  • Negotiation

 
  • Rules/regulation (incl. sanctions)

  • Prohibitions

  • Requirements

 
Incentives and disincentives 
  • Physical (infrastructure)

  • Human (employees)

 
 Examples 
  • Information campaigns

  • Eco-labelling

  • Advisory services

  • Social nudges

  • VAs

 
  • Planning law with land-use regulation

  • Emission limits

  • Pesticide regulation

  • Licences – e.g. for large animal husbandry facilities

 
  • Subsidies

  • Loans

  • Grants

  • Taxes

  • User charges

 
  • Water treatment facilities

  • Hydromorphological measures implemented by public authorities

 
Rationale for differentiationDistance-to-target
 Definition Distance to WFD goal of ‘good status’    
 Degree 
  • Far

  • Close

 
   
Type of instrument (Hood, 1986; Vedung, 2007) NodalityAuthorityTreasureOrganisation
 Resource Information Legal authority Money Physical/human resources 
 Degree of coercion Low High Medium Varying 
 Definition 
  • Knowledge

  • Advice

  • Persuasion

  • Negotiation

 
  • Rules/regulation (incl. sanctions)

  • Prohibitions

  • Requirements

 
Incentives and disincentives 
  • Physical (infrastructure)

  • Human (employees)

 
 Examples 
  • Information campaigns

  • Eco-labelling

  • Advisory services

  • Social nudges

  • VAs

 
  • Planning law with land-use regulation

  • Emission limits

  • Pesticide regulation

  • Licences – e.g. for large animal husbandry facilities

 
  • Subsidies

  • Loans

  • Grants

  • Taxes

  • User charges

 
  • Water treatment facilities

  • Hydromorphological measures implemented by public authorities

 
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