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Table 3.

Summary of findings.

CaseRationale
Type OF instrument (Hood, 1986; Vedung, 2007)
Distance-to-target
NodalityAuthorityTreasureOrganisation
FarClose
BE (Flanders) focus areas   Regulation and enforcement  Monitoring, enhanced enforcement 
DK targeted nitrogen   Shadow of authority Compensation Monitoring 
DK constructed wetlands  Knowledge transfer, advice Shadow of authority Compensation Catchment officers, monitoring 
DE focus water bodies  Awareness building, knowledge transfer, advice  Preferred funding Public care-taker, hydromorphological measures by public authorities, etc. 
DE nitrate-sensitive areas   Regulation   
IE high-status waters  Awareness building, knowledge transfer, advice  Subsidies Research, monitoring, communication services 
NL horticulture  Knowledge transfer, advice Shadow of authority  Monitoring, enhanced enforcement 
CaseRationale
Type OF instrument (Hood, 1986; Vedung, 2007)
Distance-to-target
NodalityAuthorityTreasureOrganisation
FarClose
BE (Flanders) focus areas   Regulation and enforcement  Monitoring, enhanced enforcement 
DK targeted nitrogen   Shadow of authority Compensation Monitoring 
DK constructed wetlands  Knowledge transfer, advice Shadow of authority Compensation Catchment officers, monitoring 
DE focus water bodies  Awareness building, knowledge transfer, advice  Preferred funding Public care-taker, hydromorphological measures by public authorities, etc. 
DE nitrate-sensitive areas   Regulation   
IE high-status waters  Awareness building, knowledge transfer, advice  Subsidies Research, monitoring, communication services 
NL horticulture  Knowledge transfer, advice Shadow of authority  Monitoring, enhanced enforcement 
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