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Table 1.

Description of variables.

VariableDescription
Sex of household head The head of household categorized into two distinct categories, i.e. male and female. 
Place of residence The current residence status of the respondent has been categorized into urban and rural. 
Education level of household head The level of education attained by the household head is a categorical five mutually exclusive levels: illiterate, primary, middle, secondary, and higher. 
Ethnic background of the household head The ethnic background of the household head is represented by the mother language and the households are categorized as Urdu, Punjabi/Potohari, Saraiki, and others. 
Family income A composite index of household possessions, assets, and amenities, grouped as poorest or beggarly, poor, middle, rich, and richest. 
Household media exposure The feedback of the respondent has been classified into Yes and No. The response is noted as ‘Yes’ if respondents use any of the three sources of media: reading newspaper; watching TV or listening to the radio (at least once a week or more), ‘No’ otherwise. 
Age of household head The age of the household head is a continuous variable. 
Number of household members The number of the household members is a continuous variable and contains the whole number of household members. 
Age of household head The age of the household head is taken in years and it is a continuous variable. 
Social norm of sanitation For social norms in the society regarding sanitation, the average use of latrine at the community level has been used. If the use of latrine is preferred over open defecation in a community, the average score will increase, and it will indicate that in the community, there is a social norm against open defecation. For creating these variables, individual households’ feedbacks were piled up and averaged to the PSU level. 
Household access to safe drinking water source The access to drinking water is considered safe and labeled as ‘Yes’ if it is from an improved source and (i) located on-premises, (ii) available when required, (iii) and free of fecal and priority chemical contamination, ‘No’ otherwise. 
Household access to improved sanitation If the household has a sanitation facility in any of the following: flush/pour flush: flush to piped sewerage, flush to the septic tank, flush to pit latrine; pit latrine: ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab has been treated as improving and labeled as ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ otherwise. 
VariableDescription
Sex of household head The head of household categorized into two distinct categories, i.e. male and female. 
Place of residence The current residence status of the respondent has been categorized into urban and rural. 
Education level of household head The level of education attained by the household head is a categorical five mutually exclusive levels: illiterate, primary, middle, secondary, and higher. 
Ethnic background of the household head The ethnic background of the household head is represented by the mother language and the households are categorized as Urdu, Punjabi/Potohari, Saraiki, and others. 
Family income A composite index of household possessions, assets, and amenities, grouped as poorest or beggarly, poor, middle, rich, and richest. 
Household media exposure The feedback of the respondent has been classified into Yes and No. The response is noted as ‘Yes’ if respondents use any of the three sources of media: reading newspaper; watching TV or listening to the radio (at least once a week or more), ‘No’ otherwise. 
Age of household head The age of the household head is a continuous variable. 
Number of household members The number of the household members is a continuous variable and contains the whole number of household members. 
Age of household head The age of the household head is taken in years and it is a continuous variable. 
Social norm of sanitation For social norms in the society regarding sanitation, the average use of latrine at the community level has been used. If the use of latrine is preferred over open defecation in a community, the average score will increase, and it will indicate that in the community, there is a social norm against open defecation. For creating these variables, individual households’ feedbacks were piled up and averaged to the PSU level. 
Household access to safe drinking water source The access to drinking water is considered safe and labeled as ‘Yes’ if it is from an improved source and (i) located on-premises, (ii) available when required, (iii) and free of fecal and priority chemical contamination, ‘No’ otherwise. 
Household access to improved sanitation If the household has a sanitation facility in any of the following: flush/pour flush: flush to piped sewerage, flush to the septic tank, flush to pit latrine; pit latrine: ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab has been treated as improving and labeled as ‘Yes’ and ‘No’ otherwise. 
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