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Table 7.

Logistic regression (dependent variable = access to improved sanitation).

Odds ratioStandard errort-valuep-valueSignificance
Gender of the household head      
 Male (Base Category) 1.000  
 Female 1.041 0.057 0.74 0.462  
The education level of the household head 
 Illiterate (Base Category) 1.000  
 Primary 1.241 0.051 5.23 0.000 *** 
 Middle 1.364 0.068 6.19 0.000 *** 
 Secondary 1.563 0.079 8.87 0.000 *** 
 Higher 1.823 0.134 8.17 0.000 *** 
Ethnicity      
 Saraiki (Base Category) 1.000  
 Urdu speaking 0.573 0.064 − 4.97 0.000 *** 
 Punjabi/Potohari 0.548 0.020 − 16.53 0.000 *** 
 Others 0.558 0.042 − 7.70 0.000 *** 
Place of residence      
 Rural (Base Category) 1.000  
 Urban 1.522 0.073 8.80 0.000 *** 
Household wealth status      
 Poorest (Base Category) 1.000  
 Second 4.837 0.187 40.85 0.000 *** 
 Middle 9.830 0.497 45.16 0.000 *** 
 Fourth 13.013 0.840 39.74 0.000 *** 
 Richest 21.591 2.014 32.94 0.000 *** 
Media exposure      
 No (Base Category) 1.000  
 Yes 1.111 0.034 3.35 0.001  *** 
Social norm of sanitation 180.316 12.781 73.29 0.000 *** 
Age of household head 1.008 0.001 6.78 0.000 *** 
Number of household members 1.033 0.006 5.97 0.000 *** 
Constant 0.011 0.001 − 47.34 0.000 *** 
Odds ratioStandard errort-valuep-valueSignificance
Gender of the household head      
 Male (Base Category) 1.000  
 Female 1.041 0.057 0.74 0.462  
The education level of the household head 
 Illiterate (Base Category) 1.000  
 Primary 1.241 0.051 5.23 0.000 *** 
 Middle 1.364 0.068 6.19 0.000 *** 
 Secondary 1.563 0.079 8.87 0.000 *** 
 Higher 1.823 0.134 8.17 0.000 *** 
Ethnicity      
 Saraiki (Base Category) 1.000  
 Urdu speaking 0.573 0.064 − 4.97 0.000 *** 
 Punjabi/Potohari 0.548 0.020 − 16.53 0.000 *** 
 Others 0.558 0.042 − 7.70 0.000 *** 
Place of residence      
 Rural (Base Category) 1.000  
 Urban 1.522 0.073 8.80 0.000 *** 
Household wealth status      
 Poorest (Base Category) 1.000  
 Second 4.837 0.187 40.85 0.000 *** 
 Middle 9.830 0.497 45.16 0.000 *** 
 Fourth 13.013 0.840 39.74 0.000 *** 
 Richest 21.591 2.014 32.94 0.000 *** 
Media exposure      
 No (Base Category) 1.000  
 Yes 1.111 0.034 3.35 0.001  *** 
Social norm of sanitation 180.316 12.781 73.29 0.000 *** 
Age of household head 1.008 0.001 6.78 0.000 *** 
Number of household members 1.033 0.006 5.97 0.000 *** 
Constant 0.011 0.001 − 47.34 0.000 *** 

***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1.

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