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Table 2

Restrictions on water-use activities for REAL and ABC lifestyle levels

Water-use activityABC lifestyle levelREAL lifestyle level
Toilet All toilets with a flush volume of greater than 4.5/9.0 L dual flush or 6 L single flush must be retrofitted with a water-saving toilet Allows for any toilet flush volume 
Toilet flush frequency was limited to two times a day Toilet flush frequency was not limited 
Shower Shower heads must be retrofitted with a low flow shower head with a flow rate of less than 9 L/min No restrictions placed on shower head flow rate 
Shower duration was limited to a mean of 3 min and a maximum of 6 min Shower duration was assessed considering average shower duration 
Bath Bath volume limited to less than 60 L/event Bath volume limited only by bath size 
No baths for relaxation were allowed Occasional baths for the purpose of relaxation were allowed 
Hand washing Faucets must be retrofitted with low flow faucets with a flow rate of less than 9 L/min, yet it is recommended to try keep the faucet flow rate less than 6 L/min No restrictions placed on faucet flow rate 
Water-based hand washing frequency reduced by 30% and replaced with the use of waterless hand sanitisers Water-based hand washing frequency was dictated by daily activities 
Shaving Shaving with water was not allowed, so an alternative waterless means of shaving would be required Any means of shaving allowed 
Brushing teeth The volume of water used for teeth brushing was restricted to the beaker technique, resulting in a maximum volume of 0.6 L/event The average teeth brushing volume allowed 
Miscellaneous A maximum of 10 L of water once a month was allowed for miscellaneous or emergency use Water use for activities such as cleaning the fridge, house windows, doing clean/sanitise runs of the dishwasher, and washing machine allowed 
Water-use activityABC lifestyle levelREAL lifestyle level
Toilet All toilets with a flush volume of greater than 4.5/9.0 L dual flush or 6 L single flush must be retrofitted with a water-saving toilet Allows for any toilet flush volume 
Toilet flush frequency was limited to two times a day Toilet flush frequency was not limited 
Shower Shower heads must be retrofitted with a low flow shower head with a flow rate of less than 9 L/min No restrictions placed on shower head flow rate 
Shower duration was limited to a mean of 3 min and a maximum of 6 min Shower duration was assessed considering average shower duration 
Bath Bath volume limited to less than 60 L/event Bath volume limited only by bath size 
No baths for relaxation were allowed Occasional baths for the purpose of relaxation were allowed 
Hand washing Faucets must be retrofitted with low flow faucets with a flow rate of less than 9 L/min, yet it is recommended to try keep the faucet flow rate less than 6 L/min No restrictions placed on faucet flow rate 
Water-based hand washing frequency reduced by 30% and replaced with the use of waterless hand sanitisers Water-based hand washing frequency was dictated by daily activities 
Shaving Shaving with water was not allowed, so an alternative waterless means of shaving would be required Any means of shaving allowed 
Brushing teeth The volume of water used for teeth brushing was restricted to the beaker technique, resulting in a maximum volume of 0.6 L/event The average teeth brushing volume allowed 
Miscellaneous A maximum of 10 L of water once a month was allowed for miscellaneous or emergency use Water use for activities such as cleaning the fridge, house windows, doing clean/sanitise runs of the dishwasher, and washing machine allowed 
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