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Table 2

List of variables

NameDescriptionDim.Unit
Rainfall equivalence –Equations (1) and (2) 
Abio Surface area of a generic bioretention device L2 m2 
Abio,lab Surface area of the bioretention in laboratory L2 m2 
AR Application rate – 
FR Flow rate L t−1 m/h 
Qrunoff Average inflow in a generic bioretention device L3 t−1 L/h 
Qrunoff,lab Runoff inflow in the bioretention in laboratory L3 t−1 L/h 
Vbio,lab,storage Total storage volume of the bioretention in laboratory L3 
Vbio,storage Total storage volume of a generic bioretention device L3 
Vequivalent,bio,lab Volume equivalent to the Pequivalent,bio,lab based on the bioretention area in laboratory L3 
Vrunoff Total inlet runoff volume of a generic bioretention device L3 
Efficiencies –Equations (3)–(8) 
Effpeak Peak attenuation efficiency – 
Effpr,EMC Pollutant removal efficiency, in terms of pollutant event mean concentration – 
Effpr,load Pollutant removal efficiency, in terms of pollutant load – 
Effrr Runoff retention efficiency – 
Efftime Time delay efficiency – 
Effwr Water reuse efficiency – 
EMCin Event mean concentration in the inflow m t−1 mg/L 
EMCout Event mean concentration in the outflow m t−1 mg/L 
Min Inflow pollutant mass mg 
Mout Outflow pollutant mass mg 
Qpeak,in Maximum inflow value L3 t−1 L/h 
Qpeak,over Maximum overflow value L3 t−1 L/h 
tpeak,in Duration of the event until the Qpeak,in 
tpeak,over Duration of the event until the Qpeak,over 
Vin Total inflow volume L3 
Vout Total outflow volume L3 
Vover Total overflow volume L3 
Proposed metrics to the SDG 6, 11, 13 (evaluation of water-energy-greenhouse gases nexus) –Equations (9)–(12) 
CEcs Carbon emission in the conventional water supply system kgCO2 
CEhs Carbon emission in the hybrid system kgCO2 
CERhs Carbon Emission Reduction of hybrid systems m L−4 10−6 kgCO2/m2Abio/m2IAc 
EDcs Energy demand in the conventional water supply system kWh 
EDhs Energy demand in the hybrid system kWh 
EDRhs Energy Demand Reduction in hybrid systems E L−4 10−6 kWh/m2Abio/m2IAc 
IAc Impervious catchment area L2 m2 
Vout,rec Recovered outflow volume available to non-potable reuse L3 m3 
WD Total water demand from the centralized water supply system L3 m3 
WDRhs Water Demand Reduction in hybrid systems L−1 10−6 m3/m2Abio/m2IAc 
WSR Water Stress Reduction index – 
NameDescriptionDim.Unit
Rainfall equivalence –Equations (1) and (2) 
Abio Surface area of a generic bioretention device L2 m2 
Abio,lab Surface area of the bioretention in laboratory L2 m2 
AR Application rate – 
FR Flow rate L t−1 m/h 
Qrunoff Average inflow in a generic bioretention device L3 t−1 L/h 
Qrunoff,lab Runoff inflow in the bioretention in laboratory L3 t−1 L/h 
Vbio,lab,storage Total storage volume of the bioretention in laboratory L3 
Vbio,storage Total storage volume of a generic bioretention device L3 
Vequivalent,bio,lab Volume equivalent to the Pequivalent,bio,lab based on the bioretention area in laboratory L3 
Vrunoff Total inlet runoff volume of a generic bioretention device L3 
Efficiencies –Equations (3)–(8) 
Effpeak Peak attenuation efficiency – 
Effpr,EMC Pollutant removal efficiency, in terms of pollutant event mean concentration – 
Effpr,load Pollutant removal efficiency, in terms of pollutant load – 
Effrr Runoff retention efficiency – 
Efftime Time delay efficiency – 
Effwr Water reuse efficiency – 
EMCin Event mean concentration in the inflow m t−1 mg/L 
EMCout Event mean concentration in the outflow m t−1 mg/L 
Min Inflow pollutant mass mg 
Mout Outflow pollutant mass mg 
Qpeak,in Maximum inflow value L3 t−1 L/h 
Qpeak,over Maximum overflow value L3 t−1 L/h 
tpeak,in Duration of the event until the Qpeak,in 
tpeak,over Duration of the event until the Qpeak,over 
Vin Total inflow volume L3 
Vout Total outflow volume L3 
Vover Total overflow volume L3 
Proposed metrics to the SDG 6, 11, 13 (evaluation of water-energy-greenhouse gases nexus) –Equations (9)–(12) 
CEcs Carbon emission in the conventional water supply system kgCO2 
CEhs Carbon emission in the hybrid system kgCO2 
CERhs Carbon Emission Reduction of hybrid systems m L−4 10−6 kgCO2/m2Abio/m2IAc 
EDcs Energy demand in the conventional water supply system kWh 
EDhs Energy demand in the hybrid system kWh 
EDRhs Energy Demand Reduction in hybrid systems E L−4 10−6 kWh/m2Abio/m2IAc 
IAc Impervious catchment area L2 m2 
Vout,rec Recovered outflow volume available to non-potable reuse L3 m3 
WD Total water demand from the centralized water supply system L3 m3 
WDRhs Water Demand Reduction in hybrid systems L−1 10−6 m3/m2Abio/m2IAc 
WSR Water Stress Reduction index – 
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