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Table 1

Baseline demographic and WaSH characteristics of included households

Difference
Control
50 villages
290 households
Intervention
49 villages
274 households
Intervention vs. control
(95% confidence interval)
WaSH characteristics    
 Water storage container met all criteria for safe storage 0.0% 0.4% + 0.4% (−0.4, 1.4) 
  Container has lid 65.2% 61.7% −3.5% (−11.8, 4.8) 
  Container has narrow opening 14.8% 10.9% −3.9% (−9.7, 2.0) 
  Container has tap 0% 0.7% + 0.7% (−0.6, 2.1) 
 Point-of-use water treatment practiced 1.0% 2.9% + 1.9% (−0.8, 4.5) 
 Last water source used was improved 75.5% 63.1% −12.4% (−20.3, −4.5) 
E. coli contamination of all water sources matching the last type used by the household within 100 m, MPN (SD)a 23.8 (30.6) 33.3 (34.5) + 9.5 (4.0, 14.9) 
 Household has soap available 35.5% 34.7% −0.8% (−9.1, 7.4) 
 Any household member practices open defecation 51.0% 46.0% −5.0% (−13.6, 3.5) 
Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics    
 Region, n (%)   n/a 
  Boucle du Mouhoun 99 (34.1) 72 (26.3)  
  Centre 18 (6.2) 36 (13.1)  
  Centre-Est 107 (36.9) 75 (27.4)  
  Centre-Ouest 30 (10.3) 59 (21.5)  
  Nord 15 (5.2) 20 (7.3)  
  Sud-Ouest 21 (7.2) 12 (4.4) + 0.2 (−0.1, 0.5) 
 Household floor made from durable materialsb 47.9% 47.8% −0.1% (−8.5, 8.2) 
 Household walls made from durable materialsc 23.4% 19.3% −4.1% (−11.2, 3.0) 
 Household roof made from durable materialsd 61.0% 69.7% + 8.7% (5, 16.8) 
 Household has electricity 20.3% 20.8% + 0.5% (−6.6, 7.5) 
 Primary occupation of main income earner   n/a 
  Farming or other agricultural work 80.7% 82.8%  
  Food preparation 1.7% 0.4%  
  Construction or other craft 1.0% 1.1%  
  Other 16.6% 14.6%  
  No occupation 0.0% 1.1%  
Difference
Control
50 villages
290 households
Intervention
49 villages
274 households
Intervention vs. control
(95% confidence interval)
WaSH characteristics    
 Water storage container met all criteria for safe storage 0.0% 0.4% + 0.4% (−0.4, 1.4) 
  Container has lid 65.2% 61.7% −3.5% (−11.8, 4.8) 
  Container has narrow opening 14.8% 10.9% −3.9% (−9.7, 2.0) 
  Container has tap 0% 0.7% + 0.7% (−0.6, 2.1) 
 Point-of-use water treatment practiced 1.0% 2.9% + 1.9% (−0.8, 4.5) 
 Last water source used was improved 75.5% 63.1% −12.4% (−20.3, −4.5) 
E. coli contamination of all water sources matching the last type used by the household within 100 m, MPN (SD)a 23.8 (30.6) 33.3 (34.5) + 9.5 (4.0, 14.9) 
 Household has soap available 35.5% 34.7% −0.8% (−9.1, 7.4) 
 Any household member practices open defecation 51.0% 46.0% −5.0% (−13.6, 3.5) 
Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics    
 Region, n (%)   n/a 
  Boucle du Mouhoun 99 (34.1) 72 (26.3)  
  Centre 18 (6.2) 36 (13.1)  
  Centre-Est 107 (36.9) 75 (27.4)  
  Centre-Ouest 30 (10.3) 59 (21.5)  
  Nord 15 (5.2) 20 (7.3)  
  Sud-Ouest 21 (7.2) 12 (4.4) + 0.2 (−0.1, 0.5) 
 Household floor made from durable materialsb 47.9% 47.8% −0.1% (−8.5, 8.2) 
 Household walls made from durable materialsc 23.4% 19.3% −4.1% (−11.2, 3.0) 
 Household roof made from durable materialsd 61.0% 69.7% + 8.7% (5, 16.8) 
 Household has electricity 20.3% 20.8% + 0.5% (−6.6, 7.5) 
 Primary occupation of main income earner   n/a 
  Farming or other agricultural work 80.7% 82.8%  
  Food preparation 1.7% 0.4%  
  Construction or other craft 1.0% 1.1%  
  Other 16.6% 14.6%  
  No occupation 0.0% 1.1%  

aMPN of E. coli CFUs per 100 mL sample.

bDurable flooring materials defined as cement, ceramic, wood, carpet, vinyl, or bamboo.

cDurable wall materials defined as cement, stone, brick, adobe, wood, or plastic.

dDurable roofing materials defined as metal, ceramic, cement, roofing shingles, plastic, or roofing asphalt.

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