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Table 2

Statistical comparison among the three approaches

Training
Validation
Test
HIDLNEpochsTime/EP (s)RMSE (m3/s)RNSERMSE (m3/s)RNSERMSE (m3/s)RNSE
OrigLSTM 8,760 61.4 ± 49.3 58.7 ± 0.17 170.2 0.930 0.859 202.2 0.896 0.789 222.4 0.884 0.771 
ParaLSTM 24 48.2 ± 22.5 2.7 ± 0.01 135.7 0.955 0.911 197.4 0.897 0.799 233.0 0.867 0.749 
48 43.7 ± 24.4 2.7 ± 0.01 141.3 0.956 0.903 190.0 0.909 0.813 214.1 0.889 0.788 
120 41.2 ± 26.1 2.7 ± 0.01 137.3 0.954 0.909 172.8 0.923 0.846 186.8 0.918 0.838 
ConcLSTM 24 59.1 ± 38.3 2.7 ± 0.01 134.2 0.957 0.913 230.7 0.857 0.725 243.5 0.855 0.725 
48 37.1 ± 21.3 2.8 ± 0.01 156.2 0.943 0.882 202.2 0.889 0.789 244.6 0.867 0.723 
120 82.4 ± 42.8 3.2 ± 0.01 123.8 0.964 0.926 192.1 0.902 0.809 233.5 0.872 0.748 
Training
Validation
Test
HIDLNEpochsTime/EP (s)RMSE (m3/s)RNSERMSE (m3/s)RNSERMSE (m3/s)RNSE
OrigLSTM 8,760 61.4 ± 49.3 58.7 ± 0.17 170.2 0.930 0.859 202.2 0.896 0.789 222.4 0.884 0.771 
ParaLSTM 24 48.2 ± 22.5 2.7 ± 0.01 135.7 0.955 0.911 197.4 0.897 0.799 233.0 0.867 0.749 
48 43.7 ± 24.4 2.7 ± 0.01 141.3 0.956 0.903 190.0 0.909 0.813 214.1 0.889 0.788 
120 41.2 ± 26.1 2.7 ± 0.01 137.3 0.954 0.909 172.8 0.923 0.846 186.8 0.918 0.838 
ConcLSTM 24 59.1 ± 38.3 2.7 ± 0.01 134.2 0.957 0.913 230.7 0.857 0.725 243.5 0.855 0.725 
48 37.1 ± 21.3 2.8 ± 0.01 156.2 0.943 0.882 202.2 0.889 0.789 244.6 0.867 0.723 
120 82.4 ± 42.8 3.2 ± 0.01 123.8 0.964 0.926 192.1 0.902 0.809 233.5 0.872 0.748 

NEpochs and Time/EP for the training, and RMSE, R, NSE of the final trained results obtained by OrigLSTM, ParaLSTM, and ConcLSTM with several HIDLs.

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