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Table 8

A comparison of intercept capacity of experimented metal for various materials under similar operational condition

PollutantPRB materialTimeCondition of removalInitial conc.Intercept rateAdsorption (mg/g)Literature
HCrO4 Bioactive sand 50 min Length: 30 cm; diameter: 3.75 cm; 480 g silica sand; pore volume: 104 mL; 12 mL/min 0.52 mg/L 100%  Han et al. (2016)  
 cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6 120 d Length: 17 cm; diameter: 2.5 cm; 1.32 mL/h 2 mg/L 100%  Viamajala et al. (2008)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.25 mg/L 96% 0.347 This work 
Cu2+ Mixture of municipal compost and calcite 16 h Length: 50 cm; diameter: 5 cm; porosity: 0.5; 0.5 mL/min 16 mg/L >99%  Gibert et al. (2005)  
 EGDE–CS–NZVI beads 6 h Length: 50 cm; diameter: 1.5 cm ; 35.6 cm adsorbent filling; 60 mL/h; pH: 6.4 10 mg/L >96% 67.2 Liu et al. (2013)  
 Mixture of limestone, vegetal compost and ZVI cutting 36 mon Thickness:140 cm, parallel to groundwater flow; width: 30 m long perpendicular to groundwater flow; average 6.0 m deep; 0.5–1 m/d 1.2 mg/L 76%  Gibert et al. (2011)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 5 mg/L 87% 0.195 This work 
Zn2+ Acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl mixtures 20 d Length: 45 cm; diameter: 5 cm; height of filled sorbent: 5 cm; pH 5.4; 1.0 mL/min; acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl: 80 g/40 g 20 mg/L 99.5%  Han et al. (2016)  
 Mixture of limestone and vegetal compost 36 mon Thickness: 140 cm, parallel to groundwater flow; width: 30 m, perpendicular to groundwater flow; average 6.0 m deep; 0.5–1 m/d 20 mg/L 47%  Gibert et al. (2011)  
 Mixture NZVI and pumice 17 d Length: 50 cm; diameter: 5 cm; 0.5 mL/min 23 mg/L 94.2% 13.6 Bilardi et al. (2013)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 25 mg/L 91% 1.605 This work 
Ni2+ ZVI/zeolite/activated carbon mixture 92.7 h Weight ratio of ZVI, zeolite and activated carbon: 5:1:4; porosity: 43.2%; 0.5 mL/min 0.73 mg/L 70.7%  Zhou et al. (2014)  
 Pervious concrete 1 d Length: 50 cm; diameter: 10 cm; 0.35 mL/min 1.3 mg/L 69.2%  Shabalala et al. (2017)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.5 mg/L 51% 0.17 This work 
Cd2+ Corn straw, fly ash, zeolite, and Fe-Mn nodule mixture 1 h Length: 20 cm; diameter: 5 cm; quartz sand: corn straw: synthesized zeolites: fly ash: iron-manganese nodule: quartz sand (in sequence) = 1: 2: 2: 2: 2: 2 (volume); 6 mL/min 0.5 mg/L 97%  Fan et al. (2018)  
 Compost, ZVI, limestone gravel, and granite pea gravel mixture 30 mon Thickness:7.9 m, depth: 4.1 m, width: 1.8 m; 30% (v/v) leaf/yard compost, 20% (v/v) ZVI, 5% (v/v) limestone gravel, 45% (v/v) granite pea gravel; average hydraulic gradient: 0.002 1.44 mg/L 99.9%  Ludwig et al. (2009)  
 EGDE–CS–NZVI beads 6 h Length: 50 cm, diameter: 1.5 cm; 35.6 cm adsorbent filling; 60 mL/h; pH 6.4 10 mg/L >96%  Liu et al. (2013)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.025 g/L 94% 0.0143 This work 
AsO43− 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% Fe(0), 30% Si sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone mixture (w/w %) 18 mon Thickness: 80 cm, diameter: 20 cm; 0.5 mL/min 2 mg/L 99% 517 Viggi et al. (2010)  
AsO33− ZVI bound with aluminosilicate 3 yr 0.3–6 L/min 0.21 mg/L 98.9%  Morrison et al. (2002)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.25 mg/L 62% 0.002 This work 
PollutantPRB materialTimeCondition of removalInitial conc.Intercept rateAdsorption (mg/g)Literature
HCrO4 Bioactive sand 50 min Length: 30 cm; diameter: 3.75 cm; 480 g silica sand; pore volume: 104 mL; 12 mL/min 0.52 mg/L 100%  Han et al. (2016)  
 cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6 120 d Length: 17 cm; diameter: 2.5 cm; 1.32 mL/h 2 mg/L 100%  Viamajala et al. (2008)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.25 mg/L 96% 0.347 This work 
Cu2+ Mixture of municipal compost and calcite 16 h Length: 50 cm; diameter: 5 cm; porosity: 0.5; 0.5 mL/min 16 mg/L >99%  Gibert et al. (2005)  
 EGDE–CS–NZVI beads 6 h Length: 50 cm; diameter: 1.5 cm ; 35.6 cm adsorbent filling; 60 mL/h; pH: 6.4 10 mg/L >96% 67.2 Liu et al. (2013)  
 Mixture of limestone, vegetal compost and ZVI cutting 36 mon Thickness:140 cm, parallel to groundwater flow; width: 30 m long perpendicular to groundwater flow; average 6.0 m deep; 0.5–1 m/d 1.2 mg/L 76%  Gibert et al. (2011)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 5 mg/L 87% 0.195 This work 
Zn2+ Acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl mixtures 20 d Length: 45 cm; diameter: 5 cm; height of filled sorbent: 5 cm; pH 5.4; 1.0 mL/min; acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl: 80 g/40 g 20 mg/L 99.5%  Han et al. (2016)  
 Mixture of limestone and vegetal compost 36 mon Thickness: 140 cm, parallel to groundwater flow; width: 30 m, perpendicular to groundwater flow; average 6.0 m deep; 0.5–1 m/d 20 mg/L 47%  Gibert et al. (2011)  
 Mixture NZVI and pumice 17 d Length: 50 cm; diameter: 5 cm; 0.5 mL/min 23 mg/L 94.2% 13.6 Bilardi et al. (2013)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 25 mg/L 91% 1.605 This work 
Ni2+ ZVI/zeolite/activated carbon mixture 92.7 h Weight ratio of ZVI, zeolite and activated carbon: 5:1:4; porosity: 43.2%; 0.5 mL/min 0.73 mg/L 70.7%  Zhou et al. (2014)  
 Pervious concrete 1 d Length: 50 cm; diameter: 10 cm; 0.35 mL/min 1.3 mg/L 69.2%  Shabalala et al. (2017)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.5 mg/L 51% 0.17 This work 
Cd2+ Corn straw, fly ash, zeolite, and Fe-Mn nodule mixture 1 h Length: 20 cm; diameter: 5 cm; quartz sand: corn straw: synthesized zeolites: fly ash: iron-manganese nodule: quartz sand (in sequence) = 1: 2: 2: 2: 2: 2 (volume); 6 mL/min 0.5 mg/L 97%  Fan et al. (2018)  
 Compost, ZVI, limestone gravel, and granite pea gravel mixture 30 mon Thickness:7.9 m, depth: 4.1 m, width: 1.8 m; 30% (v/v) leaf/yard compost, 20% (v/v) ZVI, 5% (v/v) limestone gravel, 45% (v/v) granite pea gravel; average hydraulic gradient: 0.002 1.44 mg/L 99.9%  Ludwig et al. (2009)  
 EGDE–CS–NZVI beads 6 h Length: 50 cm, diameter: 1.5 cm; 35.6 cm adsorbent filling; 60 mL/h; pH 6.4 10 mg/L >96%  Liu et al. (2013)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.025 g/L 94% 0.0143 This work 
AsO43− 6% leaves, 9% compost, 3% Fe(0), 30% Si sand, 30% perlite, 22% limestone mixture (w/w %) 18 mon Thickness: 80 cm, diameter: 20 cm; 0.5 mL/min 2 mg/L 99% 517 Viggi et al. (2010)  
AsO33− ZVI bound with aluminosilicate 3 yr 0.3–6 L/min 0.21 mg/L 98.9%  Morrison et al. (2002)  
 WPWS 176 h Thickness: 10 cm; height: 70 cm; width: 50 cm; 243 mL/min 0.25 mg/L 62% 0.002 This work 

ZVI, zero-valent iron; ZVAl, zero-valent aluminum; NZVI, nano-ZVI; EGDE, ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether.

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