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Table 2

Major calibration parameters for both mechanistic and conceptual sewer heat transfer models.

Parameter/modelLinköpingMalmöComments/References
Mechanistic model 
 Heat transfer coefficient from wastewater to in-sewer air
(hwa
10 W/m2·K 5 W/m2·K Abdel-Aal (2015)  
 Thermal conductivity of concrete pipe (kp0.5 W/m·K 1.3 W/m·K Asadi et al. (2018)  
 Thermal conductivity of soil (ks1 W/m·K 1.5 W/m·K Sundberg (1988)  
 Soil depth for heat transfer (ds0.5 m 0.2 m Abdel-Aal (2015)  
 Soil temperature (Ts) 5 °C 8 °C Forsberg et al. (2012), Kjellander (2015)  
4 °C 
 Reaction enthalpy for COD degradation (ecod14 × 106 J/kg COD 14 × 106 J/kg COD Wanner et al. (2005)  
 COD degradation rate in sewers (rcod1 × 10−6 kg/m3·s 1 × 10−6 kg/m3·s Huisman et al. (2004)  
Conceptual model 
 Overall heat transfer factor (hsewer20,000 W/K 35,000 W/K Calibration parameter 
8,000 W/K 
Qavg (model parameter) 1,600 m3/d 3,300 m3/d Measurement 
nflow 0.2 0.2 Calibration parameter 
Kres 200 d−1 200 d−1 Calibration parameter 
Parameter/modelLinköpingMalmöComments/References
Mechanistic model 
 Heat transfer coefficient from wastewater to in-sewer air
(hwa
10 W/m2·K 5 W/m2·K Abdel-Aal (2015)  
 Thermal conductivity of concrete pipe (kp0.5 W/m·K 1.3 W/m·K Asadi et al. (2018)  
 Thermal conductivity of soil (ks1 W/m·K 1.5 W/m·K Sundberg (1988)  
 Soil depth for heat transfer (ds0.5 m 0.2 m Abdel-Aal (2015)  
 Soil temperature (Ts) 5 °C 8 °C Forsberg et al. (2012), Kjellander (2015)  
4 °C 
 Reaction enthalpy for COD degradation (ecod14 × 106 J/kg COD 14 × 106 J/kg COD Wanner et al. (2005)  
 COD degradation rate in sewers (rcod1 × 10−6 kg/m3·s 1 × 10−6 kg/m3·s Huisman et al. (2004)  
Conceptual model 
 Overall heat transfer factor (hsewer20,000 W/K 35,000 W/K Calibration parameter 
8,000 W/K 
Qavg (model parameter) 1,600 m3/d 3,300 m3/d Measurement 
nflow 0.2 0.2 Calibration parameter 
Kres 200 d−1 200 d−1 Calibration parameter 

The references mentioned are used to define a good starting point and ensure that the final values are within a reasonable range.

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