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Table 3

CSA interventions by the stakeholders and their impacts

S.No.CSA interventionsStakeholdersProject villageBenefitsBy whom the benefits were perceived
1. Seed smart (treatment of seeds with P. FirmisKVK Peravalli Resistant to drought Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
2. Varieties smart (K-6, K-9 and Dharani of groundnut) KVK Peravalli Tolerant to drought Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
3. Horticulture-based cropping pattern (e.g. mango+tomato+chillies) Accion Pampanur Tolerant to drought and high income Beneficiary farmers and stakeholders 
4. Millet-based cropping pattern Adarsha Kodikonda Tolerant to drought and high nutritive value Beneficiary farmers and stakeholders 
5. Fertiliser smart (e.g. SHC-based fertiliser application) KVK Peravalli Induce crop to withstand drought Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
6. Watershed development KVK and Accion Peravalli and Pampanur Induce crop to withstand drought Beneficiary farmers, non-beneficiary farmers and scientists and officials of Accion 
7. ZBNF Department of Agriculture Kalyandurg Induce crop to withstand drought Beneficiary farmers and extension personnel of the Department 
8. Knowledge smart (e.g. AKPS) KVK Peravalli Timely contingency crop planning to erratic rainfall, delay in rainfall and droughts Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
9. Community smart (e.g. SMGs) Accion Pampanur Enhance the adaptive capacity of farmers to droughts Officers of Accion 
S.No.CSA interventionsStakeholdersProject villageBenefitsBy whom the benefits were perceived
1. Seed smart (treatment of seeds with P. FirmisKVK Peravalli Resistant to drought Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
2. Varieties smart (K-6, K-9 and Dharani of groundnut) KVK Peravalli Tolerant to drought Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
3. Horticulture-based cropping pattern (e.g. mango+tomato+chillies) Accion Pampanur Tolerant to drought and high income Beneficiary farmers and stakeholders 
4. Millet-based cropping pattern Adarsha Kodikonda Tolerant to drought and high nutritive value Beneficiary farmers and stakeholders 
5. Fertiliser smart (e.g. SHC-based fertiliser application) KVK Peravalli Induce crop to withstand drought Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
6. Watershed development KVK and Accion Peravalli and Pampanur Induce crop to withstand drought Beneficiary farmers, non-beneficiary farmers and scientists and officials of Accion 
7. ZBNF Department of Agriculture Kalyandurg Induce crop to withstand drought Beneficiary farmers and extension personnel of the Department 
8. Knowledge smart (e.g. AKPS) KVK Peravalli Timely contingency crop planning to erratic rainfall, delay in rainfall and droughts Beneficiary farmers and scientists 
9. Community smart (e.g. SMGs) Accion Pampanur Enhance the adaptive capacity of farmers to droughts Officers of Accion 

This table is based on the interaction with stakeholders and farmers.

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