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Table 6

Number of documents exhibiting different levels of evidence on corrective measures, incentives, and sanctions

Urban
Rural
Question topicaStrong evidenceWeak evidenceNo evidenceStrong evidenceWeak evidenceNo evidence
A – Sanctions for non-compliance 10 11 
B – Sanctions effective 11 
C – Complaint mechanisms 11 11 
Total 18 18 27 16 14 33 
Urban
Rural
Question topicaStrong evidenceWeak evidenceNo evidenceStrong evidenceWeak evidenceNo evidence
A – Sanctions for non-compliance 10 11 
B – Sanctions effective 11 
C – Complaint mechanisms 11 11 
Total 18 18 27 16 14 33 

aA: What provisions are in place for corrective management or for imposing legal sanctions for non-compliance through enforcement, fines, or charges? B: Are these considered contextually relevant or adequate to incentivise alignment, investment, or practice change? C: Can communities and stakeholders trigger investigations and sanctions through complaints mechanisms and whistle-blowing?

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