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Table 3

Summary of SNA stakeholders and their roles and responsibilities, as identified and defined by the authors

LevelStakeholderRoles & ResponsibilitiesRelevant WASH systems building block
State State Officials Policy level formulation; Implementation planning and management; Financial planning and management; Resource leveraging at state level; Monitoring Policy financing, planning, and monitoring 
Technical experts from development agencies/UN Technical support to government; Technical and knowledge partner; Advocacy for policy reforms; State–district-level capacity building, demonstration of different program/approaches; System strengthening by providing technical experts and partners to support the program Planning, institution strengthening, learning and adaptation, and monitoring 
District District Administration Administrative support and overall monitoring of program execution; Coordination with the state department; Resource mobilization

 
Planning, financing, infrastructure development, and monitoring 
District Education Officers Administrative management, planning and resource allocation, and monitoring of education programs; Evidence-based assessments; Reporting to district level; Implementation of SAPs; Roll out of capacity building plan 
District Project Coordinators Administrative management, planning and resource allocation, and monitoring of education programs; Evidence-based assessments; Reporting to district level 
Senior Technical Consultants Stakeholder mapping, technical guidance; Capacity building; Mapping of schools Infrastructure development, handholding, and quality assurance monitoring 
Engineers Technical supervision, including development of estimates for infrastructural improvement and supportive supervision to SMC and schools; Monitoring and quality assurance of civil works 
Consultants Stakeholder mapping; Capacity building; Mapping of schools; Infrastructure development monitoring; School SAP development Planning, learning and behavior change promotion, and monitoring 
Block Cluster-level Coordinators Supportive supervision to schools; Monitoring and follow-up; Reporting to block and district level Institution strengthening, monitoring 
Block Education Officers Block-level administration of education program; Planning and monitoring; Reporting to district level Planning, financing, and monitoring 
Block Development Officers Planning and allocating resources for all development works for under different block-level development schemes; Monitoring of development works executed at GP level Infrastructure improvement 
Community Head Master and Teachers Sensitization of students; School management; Planning
O&M of the infrastructure; Supportive supervision 
Planning, implementation, accountability, and institutional strengthening 
SMCs Planning and execution of school-level development works; Creating an enabling environment for learning; Development of school development plan Planning, implementation, monitoring, learning, and behavior change promotion 
School Cabinet Management of student cabinet; Behavior change promotion among students; Support in O&M and monitoring Planning, learning and behavior change promotion, and implementation 
Community Representatives/PRIs Planning; Resources allocation implementation and monitoring of development works in their GP area 
Parents Support in school development; Help in behavior change promotion among children; Presenting school-level issues in GPs planning meetings 
Students Agent of change; School-level monitoring; Sensitization 
LevelStakeholderRoles & ResponsibilitiesRelevant WASH systems building block
State State Officials Policy level formulation; Implementation planning and management; Financial planning and management; Resource leveraging at state level; Monitoring Policy financing, planning, and monitoring 
Technical experts from development agencies/UN Technical support to government; Technical and knowledge partner; Advocacy for policy reforms; State–district-level capacity building, demonstration of different program/approaches; System strengthening by providing technical experts and partners to support the program Planning, institution strengthening, learning and adaptation, and monitoring 
District District Administration Administrative support and overall monitoring of program execution; Coordination with the state department; Resource mobilization

 
Planning, financing, infrastructure development, and monitoring 
District Education Officers Administrative management, planning and resource allocation, and monitoring of education programs; Evidence-based assessments; Reporting to district level; Implementation of SAPs; Roll out of capacity building plan 
District Project Coordinators Administrative management, planning and resource allocation, and monitoring of education programs; Evidence-based assessments; Reporting to district level 
Senior Technical Consultants Stakeholder mapping, technical guidance; Capacity building; Mapping of schools Infrastructure development, handholding, and quality assurance monitoring 
Engineers Technical supervision, including development of estimates for infrastructural improvement and supportive supervision to SMC and schools; Monitoring and quality assurance of civil works 
Consultants Stakeholder mapping; Capacity building; Mapping of schools; Infrastructure development monitoring; School SAP development Planning, learning and behavior change promotion, and monitoring 
Block Cluster-level Coordinators Supportive supervision to schools; Monitoring and follow-up; Reporting to block and district level Institution strengthening, monitoring 
Block Education Officers Block-level administration of education program; Planning and monitoring; Reporting to district level Planning, financing, and monitoring 
Block Development Officers Planning and allocating resources for all development works for under different block-level development schemes; Monitoring of development works executed at GP level Infrastructure improvement 
Community Head Master and Teachers Sensitization of students; School management; Planning
O&M of the infrastructure; Supportive supervision 
Planning, implementation, accountability, and institutional strengthening 
SMCs Planning and execution of school-level development works; Creating an enabling environment for learning; Development of school development plan Planning, implementation, monitoring, learning, and behavior change promotion 
School Cabinet Management of student cabinet; Behavior change promotion among students; Support in O&M and monitoring Planning, learning and behavior change promotion, and implementation 
Community Representatives/PRIs Planning; Resources allocation implementation and monitoring of development works in their GP area 
Parents Support in school development; Help in behavior change promotion among children; Presenting school-level issues in GPs planning meetings 
Students Agent of change; School-level monitoring; Sensitization 
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