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Societal disparities in slums for women living in slums are already intensified. On top of that intellectual or physical impairment is a barrier for disabled-female residents making them more fragile to be deprived of equitable water and MHM access. Thereby, the following sections state, in brief, the SWOT outputs for both WASH and MHM perspectives of non-disabled-female residents in slums (Table 2) and subsequently of disabled-female (Table 3) for comparison purposes.

Table 2

SWOT aspects regarding WASH and menstruation for the non-disabled-female

AspectsWASHMHM
Strength 
  • 1.

    Access to water sources

  • 2.

    Access to toilet

  • 3.

    Community initiatives to maintain water facilities

  • 4.

    Willingness to pay for safe water

  • 5.

    Willingness to achieve WASH and MHM relevant knowledge

  • 6.

    Increasing literacy rate

  • 7.

    Community measures to regulate and maintain hygiene and cleanliness in the toilet

 
  • 1.

    Female can maintain hygiene during menstruation

  • 2.

    Willingness to achieve knowledge

  • 3.

    Availability of MHM products like sanitary pad and cloth (in some cases)

  • 4.

    Knowledge on how to use sanitary pad and cloth

  • 5.

    Family support

 
Weakness 
  • 1.

    Insufficient supply of water

  • 2.

    Irregular supply of water

  • 3.

    No separate water and toilet facilities for male and female

  • 4.

    Long queue and crowd during water collection from the water pump

  • 5.

    Narrow and poor road communication

  • 6.

    Insufficient space to construct the individual toilet

  • 7.

    Insufficient number of toilets

  • 8.

    Poor toilet structure, e.g., jute or cloth in place of walls

  • 9.

    Lack of affordability of medical cost

  • 10.

    The risk associated with easily transmitted diseases

  • 11.

    Risk of evacuation and fire

  • 12.

    Political disturbances to implement relevant initiatives

 
  • 1.

    Negative social views

  • 2.

    Superstition

  • 3.

    Lack of affordability to manage sanitary pad and other facilities during menstruation

  • 4.

    Scarcity of space in the toilet to change clothes and sanitary pad

  • 5.

    Less space in slum and home to clean, dry, and store of menstrual cloths

  • 6.

    Disposal of the used pad

  • 7.

    Inaccessibility to proper knowledge

  • 8.

    Unaware of the standard and importance of MHM

 
Opportunities 
  • 1.

    The willingness of people especially female to manage water sources

  • 2.

    Separate water points for male and female (in some cases)

  • 3.

    To get ownership of land

  • 4.

    People willingness to maintain proper sanitation

  • 5.

    Separate toilet (in some cases)

  • 6.

    Increasing income

  • 7.

    Environment-friendly toilet technology (in some cases)

  • 8.

    Improvement of Knowledge and awareness

  • 9.

    GO/NGO initiatives

 
  • 1.

    Increasing education rate

  • 2.

    Awareness is rising among all

  • 3.

    Technical learning

  • 4.

    Availability of MHM product in some cases

  • 5.

    Changing views in family and society level

  • 6.

    NGO initiatives

 
Threats 
  • 1.

    Increasing population density

  • 2.

    Increasing waterborne diseases like skin diseases

  • 3.

    Crime and drug business

  • 4.

    Social conflict

  • 5.

    Waterlogged during rain

  • 6.

    Risk of fire

 
  • 1.

    Unhygienic management of menstruation may cause infectious diseases

  • 2.

    Misconduct of knowledge on how to use pad or cloths

  • 3.

    Lack of family knowledge

 
AspectsWASHMHM
Strength 
  • 1.

    Access to water sources

  • 2.

    Access to toilet

  • 3.

    Community initiatives to maintain water facilities

  • 4.

    Willingness to pay for safe water

  • 5.

    Willingness to achieve WASH and MHM relevant knowledge

  • 6.

    Increasing literacy rate

  • 7.

    Community measures to regulate and maintain hygiene and cleanliness in the toilet

 
  • 1.

    Female can maintain hygiene during menstruation

  • 2.

    Willingness to achieve knowledge

  • 3.

    Availability of MHM products like sanitary pad and cloth (in some cases)

  • 4.

    Knowledge on how to use sanitary pad and cloth

  • 5.

    Family support

 
Weakness 
  • 1.

    Insufficient supply of water

  • 2.

    Irregular supply of water

  • 3.

    No separate water and toilet facilities for male and female

  • 4.

    Long queue and crowd during water collection from the water pump

  • 5.

    Narrow and poor road communication

  • 6.

    Insufficient space to construct the individual toilet

  • 7.

    Insufficient number of toilets

  • 8.

    Poor toilet structure, e.g., jute or cloth in place of walls

  • 9.

    Lack of affordability of medical cost

  • 10.

    The risk associated with easily transmitted diseases

  • 11.

    Risk of evacuation and fire

  • 12.

    Political disturbances to implement relevant initiatives

 
  • 1.

    Negative social views

  • 2.

    Superstition

  • 3.

    Lack of affordability to manage sanitary pad and other facilities during menstruation

  • 4.

    Scarcity of space in the toilet to change clothes and sanitary pad

  • 5.

    Less space in slum and home to clean, dry, and store of menstrual cloths

  • 6.

    Disposal of the used pad

  • 7.

    Inaccessibility to proper knowledge

  • 8.

    Unaware of the standard and importance of MHM

 
Opportunities 
  • 1.

    The willingness of people especially female to manage water sources

  • 2.

    Separate water points for male and female (in some cases)

  • 3.

    To get ownership of land

  • 4.

    People willingness to maintain proper sanitation

  • 5.

    Separate toilet (in some cases)

  • 6.

    Increasing income

  • 7.

    Environment-friendly toilet technology (in some cases)

  • 8.

    Improvement of Knowledge and awareness

  • 9.

    GO/NGO initiatives

 
  • 1.

    Increasing education rate

  • 2.

    Awareness is rising among all

  • 3.

    Technical learning

  • 4.

    Availability of MHM product in some cases

  • 5.

    Changing views in family and society level

  • 6.

    NGO initiatives

 
Threats 
  • 1.

    Increasing population density

  • 2.

    Increasing waterborne diseases like skin diseases

  • 3.

    Crime and drug business

  • 4.

    Social conflict

  • 5.

    Waterlogged during rain

  • 6.

    Risk of fire

 
  • 1.

    Unhygienic management of menstruation may cause infectious diseases

  • 2.

    Misconduct of knowledge on how to use pad or cloths

  • 3.

    Lack of family knowledge

 
Table 3

SWOT aspects of WASH and MHM from the perspectives of the disabled-female

AspectsWASHMHM
Strengths 
  • 1.

    Favourable attitudes of family, neighbours and landlords

  • 2.

    Existence of disabled-friendly facilities

  • 3.

    Monthly government allowance

  • 4.

    Willingness of the community to learn through training

 
  • 1.

    Favourable attitudes of family and neighbours

  • 2.

    Easily available MHM products

  • 3.

    Social acceptance in using MH products

  • 4.

    Non-existence of taboo or discrimination or social exclusion

 
Weakness 
  • 1.

    Infrequent and inequitable supply of water

  • 2.

    Inadequate cum far-reaching disabled-friendly facilities with poor road communication

  • 3.

    Disputes in maintaining cleanliness or hygiene

  • 4.

    Absence of disabled-friendly water collection point

  • 5.

    Irregular waste/garbage handling that also causes drainage congestion

  • 6.

    Lack of space or care centres

  • 7.

    Physical/mental limitation enforces dependency on family members

  • 8.

    No priority-based access to toilet and water collection point

  • 9.

    Higher plinth level of toilets with no pipeline supply

 
  • 1.

    Expensive MH products

  • 2.

    Unaffordability in maintaining regular medical services

  • 3.

    Lack of education/capacity for employment/business

  • 4.

    Physical/mental limitation to use MH products

  • 5.

    Lack of space/air, awareness in households for hygiene care

  • 6.

    Learning limitations of mentally challenged disabled-females

  • 7.

    Lack of policy or programme for disabled-females

  • 8.

    In few cases, superstition and ignorance of MHM

 
Opportunities 
  • 1.

    Utilise community support (e.g., neighbours, landlords)

  • 2.

    Provide modern facilities like wheelchair, pipeline supply, better commutes and roads, etc.

  • 3.

    Community-based Health Care programme

  • 4.

    Empowerment of women/family having a disability, e.g., capacity building for in-house income generation

  • 5.

    Involvement of family male members

  • 6.

    Enforce or encourage special care centres or trained personnel at school beyond primary education

  • 7.

    Increase the literacy rate including vocational training with favourable environment

  • 8.

    Equity-based affordable housing plan where the government will play a facilitator role, community ownership will grow

 
  • 1.

    Utilise community support

  • 2.

    Provide education to disabled-females beyond primary level coupled with caring facilities

  • 3.

    Community-based Health Care programme

  • 4.

    Empowerment of women/family having a disability

  • 5.

    Targeted training to disabled-females for income generation

  • 6.

    Enforce or encourage special care centres or trained personnel at school beyond primary education

  • 7.

    Continuing awareness programme on MHM

  • 8.

    Include policy for disabled-females

  • 9.

    Include community awareness in the disposal of MH wastes

  • 10.

    Subsidy on MH products for disabled-females

 
Threats 
  • 1.

    Incremental population demand making slum life more competitive

  • 2.

    Risk of spreading waterborne, vector-borne diseases, pandemics like COVID-19 with climate change

  • 3.

    Water quality deterioration or contamination

  • 4.

    Scarcity of supply water or Water table declination

  • 5.

    Unavailability of land due to high land price

  • 6.

    Hazards like earthquake, water logging, fire, etc.

 
  • 1.

    A huge challenge in tackling the increased disposals of MH products

  • 2.

    Non-biodegradable MH wastes, if unmanaged on-time

  • 3.

    Risk of spreading of sexually transmitted diseases and infectious diseases including pandemic like COVID-19

  • 4.

    Stigma resulted in ignoring the importance of MHM

  • 5.

    Risk of poverty

  • 6.

    Price increase of MH products

 
AspectsWASHMHM
Strengths 
  • 1.

    Favourable attitudes of family, neighbours and landlords

  • 2.

    Existence of disabled-friendly facilities

  • 3.

    Monthly government allowance

  • 4.

    Willingness of the community to learn through training

 
  • 1.

    Favourable attitudes of family and neighbours

  • 2.

    Easily available MHM products

  • 3.

    Social acceptance in using MH products

  • 4.

    Non-existence of taboo or discrimination or social exclusion

 
Weakness 
  • 1.

    Infrequent and inequitable supply of water

  • 2.

    Inadequate cum far-reaching disabled-friendly facilities with poor road communication

  • 3.

    Disputes in maintaining cleanliness or hygiene

  • 4.

    Absence of disabled-friendly water collection point

  • 5.

    Irregular waste/garbage handling that also causes drainage congestion

  • 6.

    Lack of space or care centres

  • 7.

    Physical/mental limitation enforces dependency on family members

  • 8.

    No priority-based access to toilet and water collection point

  • 9.

    Higher plinth level of toilets with no pipeline supply

 
  • 1.

    Expensive MH products

  • 2.

    Unaffordability in maintaining regular medical services

  • 3.

    Lack of education/capacity for employment/business

  • 4.

    Physical/mental limitation to use MH products

  • 5.

    Lack of space/air, awareness in households for hygiene care

  • 6.

    Learning limitations of mentally challenged disabled-females

  • 7.

    Lack of policy or programme for disabled-females

  • 8.

    In few cases, superstition and ignorance of MHM

 
Opportunities 
  • 1.

    Utilise community support (e.g., neighbours, landlords)

  • 2.

    Provide modern facilities like wheelchair, pipeline supply, better commutes and roads, etc.

  • 3.

    Community-based Health Care programme

  • 4.

    Empowerment of women/family having a disability, e.g., capacity building for in-house income generation

  • 5.

    Involvement of family male members

  • 6.

    Enforce or encourage special care centres or trained personnel at school beyond primary education

  • 7.

    Increase the literacy rate including vocational training with favourable environment

  • 8.

    Equity-based affordable housing plan where the government will play a facilitator role, community ownership will grow

 
  • 1.

    Utilise community support

  • 2.

    Provide education to disabled-females beyond primary level coupled with caring facilities

  • 3.

    Community-based Health Care programme

  • 4.

    Empowerment of women/family having a disability

  • 5.

    Targeted training to disabled-females for income generation

  • 6.

    Enforce or encourage special care centres or trained personnel at school beyond primary education

  • 7.

    Continuing awareness programme on MHM

  • 8.

    Include policy for disabled-females

  • 9.

    Include community awareness in the disposal of MH wastes

  • 10.

    Subsidy on MH products for disabled-females

 
Threats 
  • 1.

    Incremental population demand making slum life more competitive

  • 2.

    Risk of spreading waterborne, vector-borne diseases, pandemics like COVID-19 with climate change

  • 3.

    Water quality deterioration or contamination

  • 4.

    Scarcity of supply water or Water table declination

  • 5.

    Unavailability of land due to high land price

  • 6.

    Hazards like earthquake, water logging, fire, etc.

 
  • 1.

    A huge challenge in tackling the increased disposals of MH products

  • 2.

    Non-biodegradable MH wastes, if unmanaged on-time

  • 3.

    Risk of spreading of sexually transmitted diseases and infectious diseases including pandemic like COVID-19

  • 4.

    Stigma resulted in ignoring the importance of MHM

  • 5.

    Risk of poverty

  • 6.

    Price increase of MH products

 

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