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National Green Tribunal (NGT) of India, a specialized judicial body for adjudicating environmental cases in the country, has directed all the states/union territories (UTs) to plan and develop action plans for utilization of TWW and submit the same to the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for assessment (‘Order of the National Green Tribunal regarding utilization of treated wastewater from STPs’, Govt. of India, 2019). Some of the states have formulated action plans or draft policy document/guidelines for usage of TWW, such as Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Puducherry and Daman and Diu as discussed in Table 1. Some of the states have elaborative action plans, whereas some states have very limited information and promote water reuse through their existing water policy guidelines.

Table 1

Water reuse guidelines and action plans in various states/UTs.

State/UTKey features/Action plan highlights
Assam • Encouragement of water reuse by suggesting a dual piping system
• Industrial reuse, especially in thermal power plants 
Bihar • Water reuse promotion in water-stressed areas 
Chandigarh • Promotion of water recycling and reuse
• Development of infrastructural capacity by laying additional pipes
• Plan to reuse 18% TWW in the city 
Dadra and Nagar Haveli • Endorsement of wastewater reuse 
Daman and Diu • Action plan for reuse of TWW from STP
• Construction of sewerage networks and sewage treatment plants
• Industrial units to treat and reuse the treated effluent within the premise 
Goa • Formulation of policies to supply treated water in industry and agriculture 
Himachal Pradesh • Development of industrial projects with consideration to water reuse 
Kerala • Promotion of recycle and reuse for non-potable applications
• City specific plans for water reuse, e.g. Thiruvananthapuram 
Meghalaya • Promotion of water reuse
• Industries instructed to treat wastewater as per specified standards and return
• Separation of black and grey wastewater and treatment for reuse 
Maharashtra • Reuse of at least 30% of the TWW
• At least, 80% of the domestic wastewater to be available for reuse
• Industries encouraged for ‘zero effluent’
• Incentivization for reusing TWW
• Industrial reuse in thermal power plants, estates, and other non-potable purposes
• Mandate to reuse toilet water for cities 
Manipur • Reuse through greywater management 
NCT of Delhi • Policy to reuse TWW for horticulture and eliminate groundwater usage
• Encourages reuse of TWW, especially, from kitchen and bathrooms, for toilet flushing
• Mandatory decentralized wastewater treatment systems for all schools/institutions/complexes/parks/hospitals to promote reuse
• Incentives for TWW users
• Penalization against non-fulfilment of SPCB/CPCB disposal standards
• Target to reuse 80% of TWW by the year 2027 
Nagaland • Dual piping system in new establishments
• TPPs encouraged to reuse treated water 
Odisha • Promotion of water recycling and reuse for non-potable applications
• Industrial reuse of TWW 
Puducherry • Usage of TWW in industries for boiler, cooling towers, toilet flushing, fire protection, green belt development, and irrigation, etc.
• Mandatory use of treated effluent in water-intensive industries
• Subsidy provision to treated water users, e.g. industries
• Reduce the cost of treated sewage water to increase its usage
• Stakeholders awareness with respect to water reuse 
Telangana • Encourage water reuse in industries and agriculture
• City specific plans for water reuse, e.g. Hyderabad 
Tamil Nadu • Reuse practised in industries
• Setting up of wastewater treatment infrastructure
• City-specific plans for water reuse, e.g. Chennai 
Uttar Pradesh • Implementation of central schemes such as AMRUT, SBM, Smart city mission WITH respect of water reuse
• Establishment of ‘State water and wastewater training centre’ with focus on research and development, public awareness, human resources management, etc.
• Defined users for reuse of TWW
• Criteria defined for different applications as per Uttar Pradesh pollution control board (UPPCB)
• Use of TWW in industries lying within the range of 20 km of an STP
• Focus on capacity building for wastewater planning and management
• Mandatory usage of TWW in all concrete mixers and construction sites lying within 10 km of any municipality
• Mandatory reuse of TWW for vehicle washing
• Provision of stakeholdes roles and responsibilities
• Establishment of TWW cell to plan and coordinate implementation of water reuse schemes 
Uttarakhand • Promotion of reuse of TWW in industries and construction activities 
State/UTKey features/Action plan highlights
Assam • Encouragement of water reuse by suggesting a dual piping system
• Industrial reuse, especially in thermal power plants 
Bihar • Water reuse promotion in water-stressed areas 
Chandigarh • Promotion of water recycling and reuse
• Development of infrastructural capacity by laying additional pipes
• Plan to reuse 18% TWW in the city 
Dadra and Nagar Haveli • Endorsement of wastewater reuse 
Daman and Diu • Action plan for reuse of TWW from STP
• Construction of sewerage networks and sewage treatment plants
• Industrial units to treat and reuse the treated effluent within the premise 
Goa • Formulation of policies to supply treated water in industry and agriculture 
Himachal Pradesh • Development of industrial projects with consideration to water reuse 
Kerala • Promotion of recycle and reuse for non-potable applications
• City specific plans for water reuse, e.g. Thiruvananthapuram 
Meghalaya • Promotion of water reuse
• Industries instructed to treat wastewater as per specified standards and return
• Separation of black and grey wastewater and treatment for reuse 
Maharashtra • Reuse of at least 30% of the TWW
• At least, 80% of the domestic wastewater to be available for reuse
• Industries encouraged for ‘zero effluent’
• Incentivization for reusing TWW
• Industrial reuse in thermal power plants, estates, and other non-potable purposes
• Mandate to reuse toilet water for cities 
Manipur • Reuse through greywater management 
NCT of Delhi • Policy to reuse TWW for horticulture and eliminate groundwater usage
• Encourages reuse of TWW, especially, from kitchen and bathrooms, for toilet flushing
• Mandatory decentralized wastewater treatment systems for all schools/institutions/complexes/parks/hospitals to promote reuse
• Incentives for TWW users
• Penalization against non-fulfilment of SPCB/CPCB disposal standards
• Target to reuse 80% of TWW by the year 2027 
Nagaland • Dual piping system in new establishments
• TPPs encouraged to reuse treated water 
Odisha • Promotion of water recycling and reuse for non-potable applications
• Industrial reuse of TWW 
Puducherry • Usage of TWW in industries for boiler, cooling towers, toilet flushing, fire protection, green belt development, and irrigation, etc.
• Mandatory use of treated effluent in water-intensive industries
• Subsidy provision to treated water users, e.g. industries
• Reduce the cost of treated sewage water to increase its usage
• Stakeholders awareness with respect to water reuse 
Telangana • Encourage water reuse in industries and agriculture
• City specific plans for water reuse, e.g. Hyderabad 
Tamil Nadu • Reuse practised in industries
• Setting up of wastewater treatment infrastructure
• City-specific plans for water reuse, e.g. Chennai 
Uttar Pradesh • Implementation of central schemes such as AMRUT, SBM, Smart city mission WITH respect of water reuse
• Establishment of ‘State water and wastewater training centre’ with focus on research and development, public awareness, human resources management, etc.
• Defined users for reuse of TWW
• Criteria defined for different applications as per Uttar Pradesh pollution control board (UPPCB)
• Use of TWW in industries lying within the range of 20 km of an STP
• Focus on capacity building for wastewater planning and management
• Mandatory usage of TWW in all concrete mixers and construction sites lying within 10 km of any municipality
• Mandatory reuse of TWW for vehicle washing
• Provision of stakeholdes roles and responsibilities
• Establishment of TWW cell to plan and coordinate implementation of water reuse schemes 
Uttarakhand • Promotion of reuse of TWW in industries and construction activities 

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