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Table 1

Summary literature review on the impact of ditch bank vegetation on flow characteristics

AuthorsResearch typeSimulated channel typeVegetation model
Main Result
Type Rigid/ FlexibleStem simulation
Diameter (mm)DensityDistribution
Liu et al. (2017)  Experimental Semi-trapezoidal Rigid 10–308 stems/m2 Both linear and staggered Increasing the river bank vegetation density increased the velocity in the main channel more than at the riverbank. 
Mohammadzade et al. (2016) Experimental Rectangular Flexible 4.2 (rice stems) 290 stems/m Linear Ditch bank vegetation increased shear stress near the channel bed where the vertical shear stress profile is sigmoid (S- shaped). 
Masouminia (2015)  Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) Semi-trapezoidal Rigid 20–308 stems/m2 Both linear and staggered The flow velocity over the side slope becomes less than that over the main channel, initiating a momentum transfer from higher to lower velocity. 
Czarnomski et al. (2012)  Experimental Semi-trapezoidal Rigid 4.54 202 and 615 stems/m2 Linear Leaf simulations were an important influence on near-bank turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses, whereas the side slope's influence was small relative to that of vegetation density. 
Bledsoe et al. (2011)  Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) Trapezoidal Rigid Simulated as high and low density Linear Ditch bank vegetation concentrates flows in the channel center, causing a reduction in shear stresses near the bank zone and increasing them in the channel center. 
Afzalimehr et al. (2010)  Experimental Rectangular Flexible Rice stems 400 stems/m Linear The maximum Reynolds stress occurs near the bed at the flume centerline but, due to the strong effect of the vegetation, it occurs at y/h=0.5 near vegetated banks. 
Hopkinson & Wynn (2009)  Experimental Rectangular Both rigid and flexible Various configurations Downstream velocity decreased near the bank for all vegetation treatments, but the reduction did not cause a reduction in total shear stress for all vegetation types. 
Afzalimehr et al. (2009)  Experimental Rectangular Flexible Wheat stems Linear along the channel wall Reynolds stress distribution is non-linear, where there is vegetation along channel side slopes; and depends on the distance from the wall. 
Hirschowitz & James (2009)  Experimental Rectangular Rigid 200 stems/m Both linear and staggered An empirical equation was developed to determine channel discharge, using a composite resistance coefficient, which combined the effects of the channel bed and vegetation interfaces. 
AuthorsResearch typeSimulated channel typeVegetation model
Main Result
Type Rigid/ FlexibleStem simulation
Diameter (mm)DensityDistribution
Liu et al. (2017)  Experimental Semi-trapezoidal Rigid 10–308 stems/m2 Both linear and staggered Increasing the river bank vegetation density increased the velocity in the main channel more than at the riverbank. 
Mohammadzade et al. (2016) Experimental Rectangular Flexible 4.2 (rice stems) 290 stems/m Linear Ditch bank vegetation increased shear stress near the channel bed where the vertical shear stress profile is sigmoid (S- shaped). 
Masouminia (2015)  Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) Semi-trapezoidal Rigid 20–308 stems/m2 Both linear and staggered The flow velocity over the side slope becomes less than that over the main channel, initiating a momentum transfer from higher to lower velocity. 
Czarnomski et al. (2012)  Experimental Semi-trapezoidal Rigid 4.54 202 and 615 stems/m2 Linear Leaf simulations were an important influence on near-bank turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses, whereas the side slope's influence was small relative to that of vegetation density. 
Bledsoe et al. (2011)  Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) Trapezoidal Rigid Simulated as high and low density Linear Ditch bank vegetation concentrates flows in the channel center, causing a reduction in shear stresses near the bank zone and increasing them in the channel center. 
Afzalimehr et al. (2010)  Experimental Rectangular Flexible Rice stems 400 stems/m Linear The maximum Reynolds stress occurs near the bed at the flume centerline but, due to the strong effect of the vegetation, it occurs at y/h=0.5 near vegetated banks. 
Hopkinson & Wynn (2009)  Experimental Rectangular Both rigid and flexible Various configurations Downstream velocity decreased near the bank for all vegetation treatments, but the reduction did not cause a reduction in total shear stress for all vegetation types. 
Afzalimehr et al. (2009)  Experimental Rectangular Flexible Wheat stems Linear along the channel wall Reynolds stress distribution is non-linear, where there is vegetation along channel side slopes; and depends on the distance from the wall. 
Hirschowitz & James (2009)  Experimental Rectangular Rigid 200 stems/m Both linear and staggered An empirical equation was developed to determine channel discharge, using a composite resistance coefficient, which combined the effects of the channel bed and vegetation interfaces. 
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