Table 1

Authors . | Research type . | Simulated channel type . | Vegetation model . | Main Result . | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Type Rigid/ Flexible . | Stem simulation . | ||||||

Diameter (mm) . | Density . | Distribution . | |||||

Liu et al. (2017) | Experimental | Semi-trapezoidal | Rigid | 6 | 10–308 stems/m^{2} | Both linear and staggered | Increasing the river bank vegetation density increased the velocity in the main channel more than at the riverbank. |

Mohammadzade et al. (2016) | Experimental | Rectangular | Flexible | 4.2 (rice stems) | 290 stems/m | Linear | Ditch bank vegetation increased shear stress near the channel bed where the vertical shear stress profile is sigmoid (S- shaped). |

Masouminia (2015) | Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) | Semi-trapezoidal | Rigid | 6 | 20–308 stems/m^{2} | Both linear and staggered | The flow velocity over the side slope becomes less than that over the main channel, initiating a momentum transfer from higher to lower velocity. |

Czarnomski et al. (2012) | Experimental | Semi-trapezoidal | Rigid | 4.54 | 202 and 615 stems/m^{2} | Linear | Leaf simulations were an important influence on near-bank turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses, whereas the side slope's influence was small relative to that of vegetation density. |

Bledsoe et al. (2011) | Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) | Trapezoidal | Rigid | Simulated as high and low density | Linear | Ditch bank vegetation concentrates ﬂows in the channel center, causing a reduction in shear stresses near the bank zone and increasing them in the channel center. | |

Afzalimehr et al. (2010) | Experimental | Rectangular | Flexible | Rice stems | 400 stems/m | Linear | The maximum Reynolds stress occurs near the bed at the flume centerline but, due to the strong effect of the vegetation, it occurs at y/h=0.5 near vegetated banks. |

Hopkinson & Wynn (2009) | Experimental | Rectangular | Both rigid and flexible | Various configurations | Downstream velocity decreased near the bank for all vegetation treatments, but the reduction did not cause a reduction in total shear stress for all vegetation types. | ||

Afzalimehr et al. (2009) | Experimental | Rectangular | Flexible | Wheat stems | Linear along the channel wall | Reynolds stress distribution is non-linear, where there is vegetation along channel side slopes; and depends on the distance from the wall. | |

Hirschowitz & James (2009) | Experimental | Rectangular | Rigid | 5 | 200 stems/m | Both linear and staggered | An empirical equation was developed to determine channel discharge, using a composite resistance coefficient, which combined the effects of the channel bed and vegetation interfaces. |

Authors . | Research type . | Simulated channel type . | Vegetation model . | Main Result . | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Type Rigid/ Flexible . | Stem simulation . | ||||||

Diameter (mm) . | Density . | Distribution . | |||||

Liu et al. (2017) | Experimental | Semi-trapezoidal | Rigid | 6 | 10–308 stems/m^{2} | Both linear and staggered | Increasing the river bank vegetation density increased the velocity in the main channel more than at the riverbank. |

Mohammadzade et al. (2016) | Experimental | Rectangular | Flexible | 4.2 (rice stems) | 290 stems/m | Linear | Ditch bank vegetation increased shear stress near the channel bed where the vertical shear stress profile is sigmoid (S- shaped). |

Masouminia (2015) | Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) | Semi-trapezoidal | Rigid | 6 | 20–308 stems/m^{2} | Both linear and staggered | The flow velocity over the side slope becomes less than that over the main channel, initiating a momentum transfer from higher to lower velocity. |

Czarnomski et al. (2012) | Experimental | Semi-trapezoidal | Rigid | 4.54 | 202 and 615 stems/m^{2} | Linear | Leaf simulations were an important influence on near-bank turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses, whereas the side slope's influence was small relative to that of vegetation density. |

Bledsoe et al. (2011) | Numerical (3D modeling in FLUENT/ ANSYS) | Trapezoidal | Rigid | Simulated as high and low density | Linear | Ditch bank vegetation concentrates ﬂows in the channel center, causing a reduction in shear stresses near the bank zone and increasing them in the channel center. | |

Afzalimehr et al. (2010) | Experimental | Rectangular | Flexible | Rice stems | 400 stems/m | Linear | The maximum Reynolds stress occurs near the bed at the flume centerline but, due to the strong effect of the vegetation, it occurs at y/h=0.5 near vegetated banks. |

Hopkinson & Wynn (2009) | Experimental | Rectangular | Both rigid and flexible | Various configurations | Downstream velocity decreased near the bank for all vegetation treatments, but the reduction did not cause a reduction in total shear stress for all vegetation types. | ||

Afzalimehr et al. (2009) | Experimental | Rectangular | Flexible | Wheat stems | Linear along the channel wall | Reynolds stress distribution is non-linear, where there is vegetation along channel side slopes; and depends on the distance from the wall. | |

Hirschowitz & James (2009) | Experimental | Rectangular | Rigid | 5 | 200 stems/m | Both linear and staggered | An empirical equation was developed to determine channel discharge, using a composite resistance coefficient, which combined the effects of the channel bed and vegetation interfaces. |

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