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Table 2

Summary review of rigid vegetation simulations

AuthorsFlume properties
Vegetation model
TypeLengthWidthBed condition/materialSubmergenceStem simulation
mmShapedMaterialDiameter (mm)Spacing (Δx) /Density*Distribution
Tong et al. (2019)  Rectangular 0.4 Covered with PVC sheets Not submerged Cylindrical PVC 10 cm Linear 
Wang et al. (2018)  12.5 0.3 PVC sheets Not submerged PVC 10 Density (1, 2 and 4%) Staggered 
Chakraborty & Sarkar (2018)  10 0.4 Plexiglas's Submerged PVC Random Distribution 
Ahmed & Hady (2017)  12 0.4 Sand (d50=0.62) Submerged PVC 10 22.72, 11.9, and 9.61 cm Linear 
Panigrahi (2015)  12 0.6 Water-resistant plywood sheet Both submerged and not submerged Iron 6.5 10 cm Both linear and staggered 
Cheng & Nguyen (2011)  12 0.3 Steel Not submerged Steel 3.2, 6.6 and 8.3 3 and 6 cm Staggered 
Kothyari et al. (2009)  16 0.5 Stainless steel Not submerged Stainless steel 10 3.2–20.3 cm Staggered 
Meftah et al. (2006)  0.3 Water-resistant plywood sheet Submerged Metallic 10 cm Linear 
James et al. (2004)  0.1 Sand (d50=0.48) Not submerged Steel 2.5, 5, and 7.5 cm Staggered 
Stone & Shen (2002)  12 0.45 Water-resistant plywood sheet Both submerged and not submerged Wood 3.18, 6.35 and 12.7 3.8, 4.6 and 7.6 cm Staggered 
This study Trapezoidal 16 0.6 concrete Not submerged Cylindrical Steel 2.5, 5, and 7.5 cm Staggered 
AuthorsFlume properties
Vegetation model
TypeLengthWidthBed condition/materialSubmergenceStem simulation
mmShapedMaterialDiameter (mm)Spacing (Δx) /Density*Distribution
Tong et al. (2019)  Rectangular 0.4 Covered with PVC sheets Not submerged Cylindrical PVC 10 cm Linear 
Wang et al. (2018)  12.5 0.3 PVC sheets Not submerged PVC 10 Density (1, 2 and 4%) Staggered 
Chakraborty & Sarkar (2018)  10 0.4 Plexiglas's Submerged PVC Random Distribution 
Ahmed & Hady (2017)  12 0.4 Sand (d50=0.62) Submerged PVC 10 22.72, 11.9, and 9.61 cm Linear 
Panigrahi (2015)  12 0.6 Water-resistant plywood sheet Both submerged and not submerged Iron 6.5 10 cm Both linear and staggered 
Cheng & Nguyen (2011)  12 0.3 Steel Not submerged Steel 3.2, 6.6 and 8.3 3 and 6 cm Staggered 
Kothyari et al. (2009)  16 0.5 Stainless steel Not submerged Stainless steel 10 3.2–20.3 cm Staggered 
Meftah et al. (2006)  0.3 Water-resistant plywood sheet Submerged Metallic 10 cm Linear 
James et al. (2004)  0.1 Sand (d50=0.48) Not submerged Steel 2.5, 5, and 7.5 cm Staggered 
Stone & Shen (2002)  12 0.45 Water-resistant plywood sheet Both submerged and not submerged Wood 3.18, 6.35 and 12.7 3.8, 4.6 and 7.6 cm Staggered 
This study Trapezoidal 16 0.6 concrete Not submerged Cylindrical Steel 2.5, 5, and 7.5 cm Staggered 

Density*: the ratio of the bottom areas of all stems to that of the flume area for the vegetated section.

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