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Table 2

Results from the study at different measures taken to decrease the initial head loss in the filters

Measure takenChange of initial head loss, mH2O
Citric acid leaching of the filter bed +0.03 
Exchange of nozzles +0.10 
Removing of bed material from the bed surface −0.04 
Increased airflow at backwashing +0.04 
Prolonged time for backwashing of water +0.03 
Backwashing after 12 hours of operation i.e. more frequently +0.13 
Three (3) backwashing sequences instead of two (2) +0.29 
Five (5) backwashing sequences every second Monday +0.31 
Three (3) backwashing sequences, and five (5) every second Monday ±0.00 
Phosphate phosphorus meter-controlled FeSO4 dosage −0.03 
Measure takenChange of initial head loss, mH2O
Citric acid leaching of the filter bed +0.03 
Exchange of nozzles +0.10 
Removing of bed material from the bed surface −0.04 
Increased airflow at backwashing +0.04 
Prolonged time for backwashing of water +0.03 
Backwashing after 12 hours of operation i.e. more frequently +0.13 
Three (3) backwashing sequences instead of two (2) +0.29 
Five (5) backwashing sequences every second Monday +0.31 
Three (3) backwashing sequences, and five (5) every second Monday ±0.00 
Phosphate phosphorus meter-controlled FeSO4 dosage −0.03 

Values in the interval from −0.04 to +0.04 mH2O are considered not to be statistically significant.+corresponds to improvement and – to deterioration.

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