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Table 3

Evaluation of filter capacity between backwashings

StudyFilter typeUpper layer grain size [mm]Lower layer grain size [mm]Hydraulic load [m/h]Time of operation before backwash [h]Head loss at initiation of backwash [mH2O]Suspended solids in filter feed [mg/L]Bed height [m]Reference
Present study Downstream, dual media 2–3.5 1.2–1.8 3.33 72 2.5 15 1.5 Present study 
2–3.5 1.2–1.8 3.33 25 2.4 20 
Chemical Optimization of Tertiary Contact Filters Downstream, dual media n.d. n.d. 10 30 12 1.85 Boller (1984)  
n.d. n.d. 7.4 20 12 
Pilot-plant study of the tertiary filtration of wastewater using local sand Downstream, one media 2.0–3.36 – 100 2.25 14 0.9 Al-Jadhai (2003)  
  18 53 2.25 
Auswirkung von konstanten Filter-geschwindigkeiten auf die simultane Denitrifikation im Sandfilter Downstream, dual media 1.4–2.5 0.7–1.2 13.5 1.52 21 1.7 Angermüller et al. (1998)  
1.50 20 
12 8.5 1.36 24 
15 9.5 1.18 18 
Deep-bed filtration of SBR effluent for agriculture reuse: Pilot plant screening of advanced secondary and tertiary treatment for domestic wastewater Downstream, one media 1.41–2.00 – 20.3 1.18 39 1.15 Brenner et al. (1994)  
15 12 0.90 30 
15 10 0.80 44 
15 7.5 0.91 56 
Combination of granular activated carbon adsorption and deep-bed filtration as a single advanced wastewater treatment step for organic micropollutant and phosphorus removal. Downstream, dual media 0.6–2.4 0.7–1.1 22 1.7 2.6 Altmann et al. (2016)  
The impact of increased loading rate on granular media, rapid depth filtration of wastewater. Downstream, dual media 1.22–2.05 0.62–1.14 12.2 22 3.4 12 1.5 Williams et al. (2007)  
15.3 17 3.4 12 
18.3 14 3.4 12 
21.4 11 3.4 12 
24.4 10.5 3.4 12 
Filtration techniques in tertiary treatment Downstream, dual media 0.8–2.0 0.5–0.9 12.6 19 n.d. 22 0.61 Tchobanoglous (1970)  
1.08–1.99 0.98 12.6 48 0.13 14 0.51 
Process design manual for suspended solids removal. U.S. EPA. Downstream, dual media n.d. n.d. 90 n.d. 16 0.9 Zenz et al. (1973)  
n.d. n.d. 10 15 n.d. 15 
n.d. n.d. 6.2 48 n.d. 1.2 Oliva (1973)  
n.d. n.d. 8.7 16 n.d. 10 
Downstream, three media n.d. n.d. 106 n.d. 14 1.2 Zenz et al. (1973)  
n.d. n.d. 10 27 n.d. 16 
Experiences of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in deep-bed filters at Henriksdal sewage works in Stockholm Downstream, dual media 2.5–4.0 0.8–1.2 3.3 219 1.5 Jonsson (1997)  
175 
17 60 
10 100 
10 80 
10 14 28 
10 7.3 63 
StudyFilter typeUpper layer grain size [mm]Lower layer grain size [mm]Hydraulic load [m/h]Time of operation before backwash [h]Head loss at initiation of backwash [mH2O]Suspended solids in filter feed [mg/L]Bed height [m]Reference
Present study Downstream, dual media 2–3.5 1.2–1.8 3.33 72 2.5 15 1.5 Present study 
2–3.5 1.2–1.8 3.33 25 2.4 20 
Chemical Optimization of Tertiary Contact Filters Downstream, dual media n.d. n.d. 10 30 12 1.85 Boller (1984)  
n.d. n.d. 7.4 20 12 
Pilot-plant study of the tertiary filtration of wastewater using local sand Downstream, one media 2.0–3.36 – 100 2.25 14 0.9 Al-Jadhai (2003)  
  18 53 2.25 
Auswirkung von konstanten Filter-geschwindigkeiten auf die simultane Denitrifikation im Sandfilter Downstream, dual media 1.4–2.5 0.7–1.2 13.5 1.52 21 1.7 Angermüller et al. (1998)  
1.50 20 
12 8.5 1.36 24 
15 9.5 1.18 18 
Deep-bed filtration of SBR effluent for agriculture reuse: Pilot plant screening of advanced secondary and tertiary treatment for domestic wastewater Downstream, one media 1.41–2.00 – 20.3 1.18 39 1.15 Brenner et al. (1994)  
15 12 0.90 30 
15 10 0.80 44 
15 7.5 0.91 56 
Combination of granular activated carbon adsorption and deep-bed filtration as a single advanced wastewater treatment step for organic micropollutant and phosphorus removal. Downstream, dual media 0.6–2.4 0.7–1.1 22 1.7 2.6 Altmann et al. (2016)  
The impact of increased loading rate on granular media, rapid depth filtration of wastewater. Downstream, dual media 1.22–2.05 0.62–1.14 12.2 22 3.4 12 1.5 Williams et al. (2007)  
15.3 17 3.4 12 
18.3 14 3.4 12 
21.4 11 3.4 12 
24.4 10.5 3.4 12 
Filtration techniques in tertiary treatment Downstream, dual media 0.8–2.0 0.5–0.9 12.6 19 n.d. 22 0.61 Tchobanoglous (1970)  
1.08–1.99 0.98 12.6 48 0.13 14 0.51 
Process design manual for suspended solids removal. U.S. EPA. Downstream, dual media n.d. n.d. 90 n.d. 16 0.9 Zenz et al. (1973)  
n.d. n.d. 10 15 n.d. 15 
n.d. n.d. 6.2 48 n.d. 1.2 Oliva (1973)  
n.d. n.d. 8.7 16 n.d. 10 
Downstream, three media n.d. n.d. 106 n.d. 14 1.2 Zenz et al. (1973)  
n.d. n.d. 10 27 n.d. 16 
Experiences of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in deep-bed filters at Henriksdal sewage works in Stockholm Downstream, dual media 2.5–4.0 0.8–1.2 3.3 219 1.5 Jonsson (1997)  
175 
17 60 
10 100 
10 80 
10 14 28 
10 7.3 63 

Literature and our data.

n.d.=no data.

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